Ancient Egypt

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The person responsible for first unifying Upper and Lower Egypt; The first king of Egypt’s First Dynasty; 3150 BCE; Ruled for 62 years
Second king of 3rd Dynasty; Reigned for over 2 decades; He concerned himself as a god Made the first significant stone 2650 – 2575 BCE
Known as Cheops 4th Dynasty pharaoh Started the major necropolis on the Giza Plateau 2589 – 2566 BCE; He has a tiny statue of himself
Ramesses II
most famous and powerful ruler during period considered the Egyptian Golden Age He has a 6ft statue of himself "The Great Ancestor"
Wife of Akhenaton She may have ruled Egypt as co-regent (1353 – 1336 BCE) She is the queen whose tomb some postulate is in a sealed chamber within the tomb of King Tut!
The Bust of Nefertiti
Nefertiti’s fame and popularity is largely the result of this discovery – considered the very definition of beauty -
Tutankhamen (King Tut)
He is famous for the only non-looted tomb found in the Valley of the Kings to date. 1333 – 1323 BCE
Impeccable bloodline – daughter, sister, and wife of a king; Ruled Egypt for 21 years; Second-known woman to hold the position of pharaoh Ruled from 1479 – 1458 BCE Daughter of Thutmose I Married to Thutmose II (her half-brother - son of Thutmose I by one of his wives that was not her mother)
Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple
Modeled on the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II – a ruler that Hatshepsut admired has 3 levels
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face/head of a woman … wife of Osiris and is the embodiment of the traditional roles of a wife and mother
wrapped in grave goods; shown with a green colored face – god of the underworld
jackal-headed god of the dead and overseer of mummification
falcon head wearing the pschent – the sky god, the embodiment of divine kingship … son of Isis and Osiris
sun disc with cobra on falcon head – sun god (who rides through the sky in a solar barge during day and the underworld each night during which he would have to defeat the snake-god Apophis so that he could rise again)
head of crocodile – god of strength and power – protector against the dangers of the Nile
Death is not the end Death is the beginning of the next phase of someones next journey
Burial Rituals – Grave Goods
Pots Food and drink in stone vessels Combs Slate palettes on which cosmetics were ground Figures (shabti) Amulets Board games Beds Chests Clothing Papyrus
Book of the Dead and other religious texts
physical body, the vessel inhabited by the souls on Earth; preserving the body for the afterlife is important so that the soul has a place to return to.
personality, composed of the things that makes an individual unique; closest thing to our modern understanding of the soul
(vital essence/spark) breathed into a person upon birth by a goddess ;what distinguishes whether a person is alive or dead
shadow, always present; was a summary of what the person represented what made him/her unique; somewhat connected with the god Anubis.
true name given by the gods upon birth and known only to them; name used on Earth is a nickname; had the power to end one’s life and destroy one’s soul completely.
the heart, the home of human emotions as well as being the center of thought, the part of the soul that granted one access to the afterlife
immortal self, a magical unification of the Ba and Ka guaranteed by the proper funeral rites did not stay with the body but lived among the stars; could return to the body if necessary.
judge; spiritual body, part of the Akh that separated from it in the afterlife and could protect one’s loved ones and haunt one’s enemies.
life energy, the life energy of the soul; mysterious because not much is known about it; lived among the stars
Pit Graves
In the desert, away from croplands; Round or oval pit; Body in fetal position; Rich and poor alike
they put wooden sticks and mud bricks/dirt to cover the pit in the form of a mound. They look like benches in front of Egyptians homes. Its the Arabic word for bench
Step Pyramid
Monument to King Djoser The structure started as a square mastaba It was a stack of smaller mastabas on top of each other 204 feet high – the highest structure in the world at the time; Complex (40 acres): Temple, Courtyard, Shrines Living quarters for priests Wall – 30 feet high Trench – 2460 feet long and 131 feet wide 13 false doors
The “Bent” Pyramid
“The Southern Shining One;” Had Engineering issues structure is 332 feet tall. 2600 BCE
The “Perfect” Pyramid
“Red Pyramid” of Dahshure Constructed by Sneferu; Several layers of fine white limestone were used to construct the foundation; Took 17 years to finish. 2590 BCE
The “Great” Pyramid and the Giza Plateau
The Great Pyramid of Khufu; The Pyramid of Khafre; The Pyramid of Menkaure. The Great Sphinx 2589 – 2504 BCE
Does the Egyptian Art with the harmonious, naturalistic but idealized creations of ancient Greece and Renaissance European artists?
No it doesn't!
The differences between Greece, Renaissance and Egyptian Art
~Functional purpose ~Relatively conservative tradition ~there was not even a word for “art” in ancient Egypt
Statuary, Architecture, Functional Objects
Functional Objects
Palette Jewelry Sarcophagus (and other grave goods)
Gods Royalty Elite
Sphinx Pyramids Temples
Figures, symbols, and/or hieroglyphics Reliefs (carving) Wall paintings Scroll painting
Reliefs (carving)
On Tomb and Temple Walls
Wall paintings
On Tomb and Temple Walls
Ceremonial, Narrative, Functional
For religious purposes (especially as it pertains to the afterlife) For political purposes (to maintain order)
To tell stories Of the kings making offerings to the gods (Karnak); Of the king smiting the enemies of Egypt (Karnak); Of Hatshepsut’s voyage to Punt (Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple); Of a hippo hunt (Mastaba of Ty) To give instructions
Canopic jars – to hold organs; Sarcophagus – to hold coffin/mummy; Jewelry Pots Palettes
Represents the word "life" and heaven, male & female, the morning sun and earth. "may you live and be well"
The Eye of Horus
The Eye was used as a sign of prosperity
Eye of Ra
An aspect of danger and violence as it represents the heat and wrath of the sun.
Scarab Beetle
Represents the internal cycle of life. Symbol of birth, life, death and resurrections
A symbol meaning stability is the symbolic backbone of the god
The lotus plant is a symbol of rebirth
Crook and Fail
Symbolizing government
also referred as knot or blood. Symbolizes of protection
is a symbol that appears often in relics. art and hieroglyphs
Symbolizing completeness infinity and serving as protection
the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt
For the rulers of Lower Egypt
The rulers of both Lower and Upper Egypt under on ruler
Feather of Ma'at
is a goddess while her ostrich feather represents truth
Karnak Temple
Built over 2000years 2055Bc - 100AD Dedicate to the god Amun, Mut, Khonsu A place for pilgrimage for 2000years 2nd largest religious building in the world.
First Pylon
the last to be built, it is the main entrance into the Karnak temple never completed and is undecorated sphinx symbolizes the god Amun
The Great Court with the Kiosk of Tahraqa and the Second pylon
has a statue of Ramsesses II wearing a double crown of Upper/Lower Egypt and arms crossed
Ramsesses III Chapel
shrine built by Ramsesses III the first court is lined with Osiride statues of the king the west side statues wear the red crown of the south the east side statues wear the white crown of the north
Hypostyle Hall
largest room of any religious building in the world 134 gigantic stone columns 54,000 square feet (16,459 meters)
Festival Hall of Tuthmosis III
named by Tuthmosis as the “Most Splendid of Monuments” entrance originally flanked by two statues of the king in a festival costume
There once were 20 obelisks but only 3 remain in full form Thutmose I’s obelisk is on the left and Hatshepsut’s is on the right Sety II’s obelisk is at the main entrance
The Sacred Lake
largest of its kind and dug by Tuthmosis III (1473-1458 BC) lined with stone wall and stairways descending into the water used for ritual washing and ritual navigation
Thutmose III Pylon
Seventh pylon and shows Thutmose III wearing a red crown and smiting his enemies with a club list of 119 Palestinian towns conquered during his first campaigns two badly damaged colossi sit in front of the pylon
Temple of Khonsu
Khonsu was believed to draw out evil spirits built by Ramesses III
Khonsu was the son of Amun and Mut moon god with a falcon head wearing a crescent moon headdress sometimes represented by a baboon
Ancient Egyptian language written in symbols mostly written on walls, temples, or stones.
The Ankh represents the word life. This symbol is said to be a key to eternal life.
Scarab Beetle
This symbol is shown as a beetle and it symbolizes birth, life, and resurrection.