Myers Psychology for AP 2e - History and Approaches

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34 Terms
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the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.
early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
humanistic psychology
a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
the science of behavior and mental processes.
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
biological psychology
the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
personality psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
human factors psychology
an I/O psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
positive psychology
the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
community psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.
testing effect
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review.