12 Philosophers in Chapter 1: From the Perspective of Philosophy
Socrates, Plato, St. Augustine of Hippo, Rene Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Sigmund Freud, Gilbert Ryle, Patricia and Paul Churchland, Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
Mentor of Plato
Be skilled at detecting misconceptions and revealing them by asking the right questions.
The Socratic Method
Stone Mason with a sharp mind
People skilled in discussions and debates and the first teachers of the west
This method involves the search for the correct/proper
definition of a thing.
The socratic method
He was named by the Delphi Oracle as the wisest of all men.
what is the aim of socratic method
make people think, seek, and ask, again
Established "The Academy"
His name came from wide or broad and his physical built
believed that Philosophy is more than
analysis but rather a way of life.
Socrates and Plato
refer to what is real. They are not objects that are encountered by the senses but can only be grasped intellectually.
Characteristics of Forms.
eternal, permanent, indivisible.
composed of changing
"sensible" things which are lesser entities and therefore, imperfect and flawed.
The Realm of Shadows
3 books of immanuel kant
Critique of pure reason, Critique of Practical reason and Critique of Judgement
composed of eternal
things which are permanent and perfect. It is the source of all reality and true knowledge.
The Realm of Forms
made use of Socratic Method
3 components of the soul according to Plato
The Reason, The Spirited, The Appetites
the rational, is the motivation for goodness and truth.
3 Structures of the mind
ID, ego, superego
is non-rational and is the will or drive towards action. This part of the soul is initially neutral but can be influenced/pulled in two directions.
known as philosopher of the body
Maurice Merleau - Ponty
are irrational and lean towards the desire for pleasures of the body.
Plato's Theory of Love and Becoming
Allegory of the cave
once the people get out of the cave and into the light, what they will see are the Forms which is what real knowledge is.
Only Forms are Real
in knowing the truth, the person must become the truth.
Theory of Being
How to get out of he Cave and into the World of Forms based on Plato's Philosophy?
Plato's 4 Big Ideas for
Making Life More Fulfilled
2.Let Your Lover Change You.
3.Decode the Message of Beauty.
sees man as sinners who reject/go against a loving God's command.
The source of all reality and truth according to Hippo
Difference between right or wrong
Rejected Christianity and wanted to know about moral evil and why it existed in people.
St. Augustine of Hippo
Christian philosophers during the medieval era
Believed that man should rely on God's commands and his judgements of what constitutes
good and evil.
St. Augustine of Hippo
The Role of Love according to Hippo
''All things are worth of love but must be loved properly.''
Father of modern Philosophy.
a group of philosophers who considered truth as a
universal concept and reason are superior to and independent of sensory experience.
two powers of human mind
Intuition and Deduction
Who Introduced the Cartesian method and invented analytic geometry.
the ability to apprehend the direction of certain truths
the power to discover what is not known by progressing in an orderly way from what is already known. Truths are arrived at using a step-by-step process.
truths hat can be discovered, does not rely on some
experiences because they are innate to human mind.
Interested in politics and was a defender of the parliamentary system.
Locke's theory that ideas are not innate but rather the mind at birth is a blank slate.
objects that were experienced through the senses.
Mind looks at the objects that were experienced to discover relationships that may exist between them.
choosing or willing the good.
are acts that produce the greatest possible good.
Law of Opinion, Civil Law, and Divine Law
Three laws according to locke
Where actions that are praiseworthy are called virtue and those that are not are called vice.
Law of Opinion
where right actions are enforced by people with authority (ex. Courts, Police)
set by God on the actions of man. The true law for human behavior. Man should always follow on this law
-Lost his faith during the time that he was enrolled at the
University of Edinburg.
-Credited for giving empiricism its clear formulation.
-Relied on scientific method at the beginning of his philosophy.
-Discovered the limitations of the mind and his optimism
turned into skepticism.
an attitude of doubting the truth of something.
2 Types of Perception
Impression and Ideas
are the immediate sensation of external reality. These are more vivid than the ideas it produces.
are recollections of these impressions.
different terms of soul, according to Hume
He concluded that man does not really have an idea of the so-called self because ideas rely on sense impressions and people have no sense impression of a self.
Hume's View of Human
Lived all his life in town of Konisberg in East Prussia
(presently Western Prussia)
• Deeply spiritual
• Rousseau made him realize and enabled him to formulate his philosophical ideas.
• Stated that it was the philosophy of David Hume that
awakened and motivated him to be the founder of German Idealism.
Combined Rationalism and Empiricism and defined knowledge as a result of human understanding applied to sense
Kant's View of the Mind
-made use of methods like free
association and dream analysis.
workings of the mind or
one's mental life impacts strongly on the body
resulting in either emotional stability or psychological dysfunctions.
life instincts, the energy of
eros is called libido and includes urges necessary for individual and species survival like thirst, hunger, and sex.
death instinct, man's
behavior directed towards
distribution in the form of aggression and violence.
-An English philosopher whose ideas contradicted
-Stigmatized the mind as the “Ghost in the Machine"
2 types of Knowledge
Knowing-that and Knowing-how
is one of the disciplines in the social sciences which aim to discover the ways by
which the social surrounding/environment
influences people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
He wrote and published many articles and book reviews but did not publish any book. It was his students who put together his numerous writings and edited them for publication.
George Herbert Mead's main interests at Harvard University
Philosophy and Psychology.
The approach Mead used to
describe the power of the environment in shaping
According to him, the Self is not there from birth, but is
developed over time from social experience and activities. And self cannot be separated from society.
three activities developing the self, According to Mead
play and games.
develops self by allowing individuals to respond to
each other through symbols, gestures, words, and sounds.
develops self by allowing individuals to take on different
roles, pretend and express expectation of others.
develops self by allowing individuals to understand and
adhere to the rules of the activity.
3 STAGES OF SELF DEVELOPMENT
1. The Preparatory Stage
2. The Play Stage
3. The Game Stage
At this stage, children’s behavior is primarily based on imitation. It was observed that children imitate the behaviors of those around them.
The Preparatory Stage
At this stage, skills at knowing and understanding the symbol of communication is important for this constitutes the basis for socialization.
The Play Stage
At this stage the child begins to consider several tasks and various relationships simultaneously.
The Game Stage
term Mead used to explain the
behavior of the person when he sees/considers other people in the course of his actions.
When the person initiates or performs a social action,
the self-functions as a subject.
when the person takes the role of the other, the self
functions as an object.
He was an American Sociologist who used
sociopsychological approach to understand how the society works.
He was a Canadian American sociologist known for his role
in the development of Modern American Sociology.
the process of altering how the
person presents himself to others
a French critical theorist, was one of the first to observe
the relationships that people have with objects, and in particular looked at
objects as signs or things which could be decoded to convey message beyond their practical value.
He popularized the field of Semiology
The study of sign
2 Elements of Sign
Tell your signified to the
relate the functional properties of a product.
signify personal qualities, social standing, group affiliation and gender role.
Social Symbolic Functions
refer to the extent to which material possessions may be used to communicate group
membership and status
reflect a person's unique qualities, values or attitudes.
reflect a person's unique qualities, values or attitudes.
study of things that a person is lacking, how people make use of the things they have, and making them right decisions. It is a condition of the person, group or region as regards to material prosperity.
the ability of individuals and
families to consistently meet their needs.
the result of socialization and
professionalization of the subject that acquires a particular significance in human affairs.
a psychological phenomena that results from social categorization.
Factors that affect the economic identity:
-motivational and value sphere of his personality