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190 Terms
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GI system function
Ingestion, digestion, propulsion, secretion, absorption, elimination
Accessory organs of the digestive system
Paratoid salivary glands, teeth, tongue, sublingual salivary gland, submandibular salivary gland, liver
Involves peristalsis and segmentation. movement of food in 2 steps
the ripple-like wave of muscular contraction (forces materials to move further along the GI tract. muscular contraction to move food further
mixing of material (helping to mix materials and combine them with digestive organ secretion
Oral cavity
cheeks, lips, palate, tongue, salivary, glands, and teeth Vestibule (space between lips and teeth)
space between lips and teeth
Salivary glands
moistens ingested materials to become a slick bolus Chemical digestion of ingested materials Antibacterial action Dissolves materials so that taste receptors on the tongue can be stimulated
Majority of saliva comes from
submandibular (60-70%)
Cranial nerve 7 controls
submandibular and sublingual (3-5% production)
Cranial nerve 9 controls
parotid 25-30% of production
Cementum Periodontal ligaments Dental alveoli Dentin Apical foramen: blood vessels and nerves Pulp cavity Enamel Crown Gingiva Neck
Deciduous teeth
Erupt between 6-30 months, 20 in number
permanent teeth
replaces deciduous teeth, 32 in number
Shared by the respiratory and digestive system Three skeletal muscle pairs of pharyngeal constrictors
made up of stratified squamous
Esophageal hiatus
the opening through the diaphragm that connects the esophagus to the stomach
Superior esophageal sphincter
at the junction of the pharynx and esophagus
Inferior esophageal sphincter
junction of the esophagus and the stomach
swallowing process
Voluntary phase Pharyngeal phase Esophageal phase
Continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of bolus Upper left quadrant of the abdomen Four regions: cardia, fundus, body, pyloris.
Four regions of the stomach
cardia, fundus, body, pyloris
Large intestines anatomy
Tenia coli Haustum: pouches Omental appendices Attachments Sigmoid mesocolon Transverse mesocolon Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal
Musculans mucosa
right underneath the intestinal gland
right lobes, left lobes, caudate lobe, quadrate lobe
Falciform ligament
separates the left and right lobe
Porta hepatitis
Hepatic artery proper Common hepatic duct Hepatic portal vein
Common hepatic duct
vile comes out of the liver and goes up to the gallbladder
Branch of the hepatic portal vein
brings blood to the liver
The hepatic vein
takes blood out of the liver from there to the inferior vena cava
Right and left hepatic ducts merge
to form a common hepatic duct
Common hepatic and cystic ducts merge
to form a common bile duct
Sphincter hepatopancreatic
bile duct and pancreatic duct join together to pancreas and bile to drain into the duodenum
99% produces digestive enzymes (cell acinar) 1 % produces insulin hormones (pancreatic islet)
1 million nephrons in each kidney Location: around T12 8-12 lobes Cortex Medulla Sinus nephron
Blood circulation inside the kidney
Afferent arteriole= glomerulus= efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries
Vasa recta
forms the same shape as loop of henle ( U shape) makes urine concentrated
Juxtaglomerural apparatus
controls blood pressure
Renal corpuscle
Bowman's capsule glomerulus
Macula densa
a wall of distal convoluted tube
Granular cells
contain renin (on the wall of the afferent arteriole there is some smooth muscle in these cells) which are called juxtaglomerular cells
Podocyte cells
sitting on top of capillaries (cells of visceral membrane)
blood before entering Bowman's capsule
Distal convoluted tube and collective tube
ADH and aldosterone target for these hormones
Urinary tract
Fibro muscular
wall contains 3 layers Mucosa Muscularis Adventitia
When the wall of the bladder contract
closes the ureters
Urinary bladder
Mucosa and Submucosa Muscularis Adventitia
Takes out the urine, females is shorter, male is longer
3 parts of male urethra
Prostatic Membranous Spongy
produce sex cells called gametes
oocytes (XX). anchored to pelvis by folds of peritonium
sperm (XY)
Accessory organs of female reproductive system
Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina Clitoris Mammary glands
2 triangles; Urogenital and anal triangle
urethriel orifice base of penis and scrotum. form pubic symphysis to the ischial tuberosity.
Anal triangle
ischial tuberosity to coccyx
Vescicouterine pouch
between the bladder and uterus
Rectouterine pouch
between uterus and anus
bending forward of the uterus (towards the bladder)
bending forward of the uterus (towards the bladder)
ligaments that hold them
back wall. mesenteric part of ovaries attaching to wall.
Broad ligament
covers everything like a sheet
Suspensory ligament
side wall, to the wall of the pelvis
Layers of the uterus
Endometrium Myometrium Perineitrium Vagina Vulva
Uterus ligaments
Round ligament Transverse ligament: cervix to side wall Uterosacral ligament
Internal OS, cervical canal, external OS
1 layer of simple squamous
2 layers of cuboidal
antrum(cavity) egg still in the center
antrum huge and egg pushed to the side (vesicular follicle)
fondus and body
egg and sheet that covers it
primordial follicles
2 million when your born
Covering the egg
Primordial follicle Primary follicles Secondary follicle Mature follicle
creates the 2 million eggs (before born)
Primary oocyte
daughter of oogonium. Doesn't complete mitosis
Mature follicle
secondary oocyte contains 23 chromosomes. Each chromosome has two copies. This is what women ovulate
will make it change or separate into two copies
sperm gets in 23 chromosomes
Corpus luteum
stays alive for 2 weeks and chains into corpus albicans
24 hours to 48 hours alive
3 days alive
Bronchial trees
Upper respiratory tract Sphenoidal sinus Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Pharynx
Lower respiratory tract
Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs
Respiratory functions
Breathing Sound production Olfaction Defense
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Opening to auditory tube
Posterior nasopharnyx
wall houses a single pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the hyoid bone. at the end of the oral cavity. non-keratinized stratified squamous
Bronchial tree
Trachea Left primary bronchus Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles
Lobar bronchi
Secondary Three on the right Two on the left
Bronchopulmonary segment
right lung has 10, left lung has 8-10
less than 1mm diameter and are lined in simple columnar or simple squamous are lined pseudostratified columnar epithelium. dosen’t have cartilgae
Alveolar type 1 cells
simple squamous epithelium
Alveolar type 2 cells
almost cuboidal in shape, produces pulmonary surfactant (decreses surface tension within the alveolis and prevents the collapse of alveoli
Voice box
supported by 9 cartilages
Alveolar macrophages
dust cells
The respiratory membrane
consists of; plasma membrane
Paranasal sinuses
Frontal Ethmoidal Sphenoidal maxillary Air spaces make bone lighter
Larynx function
Passageway Prevents ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract Produces sound for speech Assist in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity Partcipiates in both sneeze and cough reflex
larynx anatomy
Thyroid cartilage: is the largest cartilage No posterior wall Laryngeal prominence Cricoid cartilage Aryteroid cartilages Crniculate cartialges Cuneiform cartilages Epiglottis
Vocal folds
Vocal ligaments covered by a mucous membrane
Rima Glottis
opening between the vocal folds
Windpipe Anterior to the esophagus 2.5cm in diameter and 12-14cm in length C-shape tracheal cartialges Connected by trachealis ligaments Annular ligaments: connects tracheal cartilage to each other Lined C-shape pseudostratified columnar epithelium Has much secreting goblet cells
Corona radiata
folicular cells that surround the egg that is going to be released
corpus luteum
Stays alive for 2 weeks Creates progesteron Holds the wall of the uterus
Granulosa cells
Produce estrogen Builds the wall of the uterus
Fallopian tube
Only touches the ovary when ovulating Measures 10-12cm Onfundibulan fimbriae Ampulla Isthmus Uterine par Fallopian is going to attach to the back wall by mesosalpinx also broad ligament holds the tube
Sperm and egg combine Takes 3 days to get to uterus Doing mitosis on its way The egg feed the zygote After implantation blood vessels are going to surround egg and give it nutrition
Endometrium 2 layers
Functional Basalae layer Functional is the one we loose to ovulation
ciliated columnar epithelial
inner circular smooth muscle and outer longitudinal smooth muscle and serosa
Walls of the uterus
Endometrium Myometrium Perimetrium
nothing \
Fibromuscular tube 10 cm Nonkeratinezed stratified squamous 3 tunics Highly vascular Lamina propira Muscularis Adventitia
External genitalia Hymen Vagina Labia minora Urethra Clirotis
Mons Pubis
Skin with hair
Labia Majora
Folds with hair secretes sweat and has sebaceous glands
Labia minora
Fold with no hair; melanocytes for darker girls
Has urethra and vaginal orifice
Covers the clitoris
greater vestibular gland
Secretion during intercourse for lubrication (bartholin gland)
Mammary glands
Lobes and lobules
Contain alveoli that produces milk
Lactiferous duct
Collect milk from lobules each one
Lactiferous sinus
Opening the outside to deliver the milk
Male reproductive system primary organs
Accessory organs
Prostate Penis Seminal vesicle
24-48 hours sperm takes here to mature
Ampulla of ductus deferens
End of ductus
Seminal vesicle
Seminal vesicle Produces 60% of semen, comes together to the end of the ductus, deferens mix with sperm
Ejaculatory duct
Collects sperm and semen and sends it to prostatic urethra
Prostatic urethra
Part of the urethra inside prostate
Bulbourethral gland
Cleans the urethra. produces the rest of semen
Prostate produces
Semen 20-25% the res is produced in the bulbourethra gland
Temp 3° below normal body temp Dartos muscle External spermatic fascia Cremaster muscle within cremasteric Contracts to keep 3° less Internal spermatic fascia Testis
Testis layers
Testis layers Tunica vaginallis Tunica albugina Lobules
Tunica vaginallis
contains visceral and parietal layers
Tunica albugina
creates lobules
Produces sperm every day Does mitosis and one will become sperm the other will become spermatogonia
Sustentacular cells
Lighter and bigger, nondividing blood-testis barrier
Rete testis
Area of collection before epidedidymis
Immature sperm
Immature sperm becomes sperm
Intersitial cells
Creates testosterone and its outside tube
Spongy urethra
surrounding it corpus sponginiosum, corpus cavernosum and glans
nonkertanized stratified squamous. ex: superior vocal folds