photosynthesis, respiration, exchange, sedimentation and burial, extraction, and combustion
How do humans affect the carbon cycle?
burning fossil fuels takes the carbon in the ground and puts an excess into the atmosphere
nitrogen cycle steps
nitrogen fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification
How does Nitrogen become usable for living organisms
highly specialized bacteria or human intervention
Bacteria take nitrogen and turn it into forms of nitrogen that can be taken up by plants and phytoplankton through assimilation and used to fuel their growth.
phosphorus cycle steps
weathering makes phosphate ions (PO4^-3) available in water/soil for plants to absorb
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples are flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, and human beings.
A species closely fitted to a specific niche and able to tolerate little change in that niche.
Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age. (the mother cares for the baby)
Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.( the mother doesn't take care of the baby)
Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.
survivorship curve type 1
low death rates during early and middle life and an increase in death rates among older age groups
survivorship curve type 2
the death rate is constant over the organism's life span
survivorship curve type 3
high death rates for the young and lower death rates for survivors
The maximum population size of a given organism that a given environment can sustain.
resource availability effect on population
more food results in faster growth
age structure diagram
graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population.
What do age structure diagrams show?
show how a population is distributed among various ages(•Wide base = many young: High reproduction, Rapid population growth
Factors that affect total fertility rate(TFR) in humans
-Medical care reduces infant mortality
How does the human population experience growth and decline
If the births are more then the deaths then the population increases. If the deaths are more then the births the population decreases
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Oil, natural gas, and coal are collectively called fossil fuels.
any natural resource that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
concept of sustainability
fulfilling the needs of current generations without compromising the needs of future generations, while ensuring a balance between economic growth, environmental care and social well-being.
Variable measured in an ecological footprint.
The planet's capacity to produce resources and The resources consumed by humans and their waste.
types of plate boundaries
Convergent, Divergent, Transform boundaries
Convergent plate boundaries
where two plates come together, can give rise to different outcomes, their is 3 kinds of crusts involved oceanic-continental, oceanic-oceanic, and continental-continental.
Divergent plate boundaries
Tectonic plates push apart from one another as magma rises upward to the surface, creating new lithosphere as it cools, two crusts involved are oceanic-oceanic and oceanic-continental.
transform place boundaries
Where two plates meet, they may slip and grind alongside one another.
What geological events happen at transform boundaries
The movement creates friction that generates earthquakes along strike-slip faults
What geological events happen at convergent boundaries
It creates volcanos, mountains, deep trenches, and one plate goes under another creating a subduction zone.
What geological events happen at divergent boundaries
magma (molten rock) rises from the Earth's mantle to the surface, solidifying to create new oceanic crust.
What percent of energy moves up the trophic levels
10 percent moves up
What is the order of the Trophic levels
Producers at the bottom, then primary consumer, the secondary consumers, then tertiary consumers.
How do producers get food
They get food thought sun light and convert it into chemical energy
A species out competes others for resources
no species fully out competes others for resources, living side by side
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey, one species hunts others
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it
Animals that eat plants, they don't kill the plant but just hurt it
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
populations of organisms living in the same area and time.
a competition between individuals from the same species
the competition between individuals of different species.
an evolutionary change that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment. Under such conditions, natural selection favors a divergence in the characters--morphology, ecology, behavior, or physiology--of the organisms.
What determines biomes
temperature, precipitation, soil conditions, wind patterns, and ocean currents. Temperature and precipitation tend to exert the greatest influence
Rule of 70
Divide your growth rate by 70 to determine the amount of time it will take for your investment to double.
Maximum sustainable yield
How many animals can be removed from a population without leading to population growth.