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108 Terms
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fundamental niche.
The full potential niche of a species
realized niche
An individual that only plays part of its role due to competition or other interactions
resource partitioning
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
Character displacement
competing species diverge and develop different characteristics.
The process by which individuals of one species (the predators) capture, kill, and consume individuals of another (the prey).
Parasites that cause disease are called
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
A relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)
keystone species
A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
trophic cascade
If top predators are lost, primary consumers will overconsume producers and alter the entire ecosystem
Introduced species
species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally(non-native species)
invasive species
species that enter new ecosystems and multiplies, harming native species and their habitats
the application of population ecology to the study of change in human populations
Demographic transition
a model of economic and cultural change
Signs of Pre-industrial stage
High birth rate and High death rate
Signs of Post-industrial stage
Low birth rate and low death rate
Signs of industrial stage
Birth rate decline due to increase of opportunities for women and increase in use of birth control
Signs of transition stage
Death rate declines but Birth rate is still high
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil.
a system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms.
clay size
particles are the smallest, less than 0.002 mm in diameter.
Sand size
the largest, between 0.05-2 mm in diameter.
silt size
particles fall in-between clay and sand
slash-and-burn agriculture
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
The artificial provision of water beyond what is received by precipitation
A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.
Inorganic fertilizers
Fertilizer produced commercially, normally with the use of fossil fuels
Organic fertilizers
fertilizer composed of organic matter from plants and animals
Land degradation
a deterioration of land that diminishes its productivity and biodiversity and impairs the functioning of its ecosystems
Soil degradation
the deterioration in quality and productivity of soil.
3 ways to make land more vulnerable to erosion
Over cultivating fields, Grazing rangeland with more livestock than it can support, and Clearing forests on steep slopes
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope.
An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.
rows of trees planted as a windbreak to reduce soil erosion of agricultural land
Why is tilling bad?
Since tillage fractures the soil, it disrupts soil structure, accelerating surface runoff and soil erosion
Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover
over watering the soil dissolves salts from subsoil layers and when the water evaporates it leaves an abundance of salt on top
An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety
Signs of industrial farming
large-scale, intensive production of crops and animals, often involving chemical fertilizers on crops or the routine
Green Revolution
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; was the start of industrial agriculter.
A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages. It reduces fishing pressure on wild stocks. Saves fossil fuels.
Why is are pesticides getter stronger?
Pesticides don't kill all pest and some survive and then breed producing a stronger more resistant pest and needs stronger chemicals.
Cons of aquaculture
density of animals increases disease. Shrimp farming destroys mangroves. Pollution. Lots of fish waste
Why is crop diversity important?
Insurance against monoculture fail. If there are genetic variations then one disease will not kill every plant.
biological control
A method of pest control that involves the use of naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites, or predators to control pests
Concentrated animal feeding operation - aka Factory farms
Factors involved in soil formation include
weathering of parent material and the addition of organic material
removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matter, essential to soil's fertility
the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture.
Drip irrigation
the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops
carbon cycle
The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
Where is most of the water in the water cycle
In the ocean
Steps of the water cycle
Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Runoff, Infiltration
How do reservoirs affect the water cycle
by holding water evaporation increases
Carbon Cycle Steps
photosynthesis, respiration, exchange, sedimentation and burial, extraction, and combustion
How do humans affect the carbon cycle?
burning fossil fuels takes the carbon in the ground and puts an excess into the atmosphere
nitrogen cycle steps
nitrogen fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification
How does Nitrogen become usable for living organisms
highly specialized bacteria or human intervention
Bacteria take nitrogen and turn it into forms of nitrogen that can be taken up by plants and phytoplankton through assimilation and used to fuel their growth.
phosphorus cycle steps
weathering makes phosphate ions (PO4^-3) available in water/soil for plants to absorb
generalist species
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples are flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, and human beings.
specialized species
A species closely fitted to a specific niche and able to tolerate little change in that niche.
K-selected species
Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age. (the mother cares for the baby)
r-selected species
Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.( the mother doesn't take care of the baby)
survivorship curve
Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.
survivorship curve type 1
low death rates during early and middle life and an increase in death rates among older age groups
survivorship curve type 2
the death rate is constant over the organism's life span
survivorship curve type 3
high death rates for the young and lower death rates for survivors
carrying capacity
The maximum population size of a given organism that a given environment can sustain.
resource availability effect on population
more food results in faster growth
age structure diagram
graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population.
What do age structure diagrams show?
show how a population is distributed among various ages(•Wide base = many young: High reproduction, Rapid population growth
Factors that affect total fertility rate(TFR) in humans
-Medical care reduces infant mortality
How does the human population experience growth and decline
If the births are more then the deaths then the population increases. If the deaths are more then the births the population decreases
demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Four stages of demographic transition
preindustrial, transitional, industrial, postindustrial
nonrenewable resources
Oil, natural gas, and coal are collectively called fossil fuels.
renewable resource
any natural resource that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
concept of sustainability
fulfilling the needs of current generations without compromising the needs of future generations, while ensuring a balance between economic growth, environmental care and social well-being.
Variable measured in an ecological footprint.
The planet's capacity to produce resources and The resources consumed by humans and their waste.
types of plate boundaries
Convergent, Divergent, Transform boundaries
Convergent plate boundaries
where two plates come together, can give rise to different outcomes, their is 3 kinds of crusts involved oceanic-continental, oceanic-oceanic, and continental-continental.
Divergent plate boundaries
Tectonic plates push apart from one another as magma rises upward to the surface, creating new lithosphere as it cools, two crusts involved are oceanic-oceanic and oceanic-continental.
transform place boundaries
Where two plates meet, they may slip and grind alongside one another.
What geological events happen at transform boundaries
The movement creates friction that generates earthquakes along strike-slip faults
What geological events happen at convergent boundaries
It creates volcanos, mountains, deep trenches, and one plate goes under another creating a subduction zone.
What geological events happen at divergent boundaries
magma (molten rock) rises from the Earth's mantle to the surface, solidifying to create new oceanic crust.
What percent of energy moves up the trophic levels
10 percent moves up
What is the order of the Trophic levels
Producers at the bottom, then primary consumer, the secondary consumers, then tertiary consumers.
How do producers get food
They get food thought sun light and convert it into chemical energy
Competitive exclusion
A species out competes others for resources
species coexistence
no species fully out competes others for resources, living side by side
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey, one species hunts others
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it
Animals that eat plants, they don't kill the plant but just hurt it
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
populations of organisms living in the same area and time.
intraspecific competition
a competition between individuals from the same species
interspecific competition
the competition between individuals of different species.
Character displacement
an evolutionary change that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment. Under such conditions, natural selection favors a divergence in the characters--morphology, ecology, behavior, or physiology--of the organisms.
What determines biomes
temperature, precipitation, soil conditions, wind patterns, and ocean currents. Temperature and precipitation tend to exert the greatest influence
Rule of 70
Divide your growth rate by 70 to determine the amount of time it will take for your investment to double.
Maximum sustainable yield
How many animals can be removed from a population without leading to population growth.
Red List
The UN's protection plan of endanger species