Persian Empire (began by Cyrus the Great, ended by Alexander) (DATE)
discovered King Tut's tomb
would become the de-facto state religion of Persia (Iran)
based off the reign of kings
meaning "the land between rivers", located in present day Iraq and Syria. Called the "cradle of civilization"
includes Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Palestine
designate India and China
a culture that has attained a high degree of complexity, characterized by urban life
Early Mesopotamian Life
Home -- swampy flood plain, subject to irregular flooding
open to invasion and saw constant warfare
urban region and agricultural land under city control (Ur a leader)
a writing system consisting of wedge marks on clay
widespread, 40-50% of the population
Sargon I (Sargon the Great)
built the world's first substantial empire; stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean
A city prominent under Hammurabi
best known for his law code
"the gift of the Nile"; one of the longest-lasting civilizations in history; devised the first solar calendar
rose and fell with precision, "black silt" left behind
believed to be both a man and a god
a burial chamber for the pharaohs
Who was mummified?
at first it was pharaohs, then anyone that could afford it, animals (cats), etc.
contains Egyptian hieroglyphics, Egyptian demotic, and Greek
Old Kingdom Period (Egypt)
age of pyramids reaches zenith at Giza; enormous expenditure on pyramids led to its decline
overthrown in a national uprising
1st female pharaoh
Amenhotep II and Akhenaton
"King Tut"; his tomb escaped looting and was found largely intact
The United Kingdom of Israel's First Three Kings
Saul, David, Solomon
(After Division) Israel
10 Northern tribes identified with Samaria, conquered by the Assyrians
(After Division) Judah
2 Southern tribes identified with Jerusalem, conquered by the Babylonians
West European peoples during the Iron Age
from Asia Minor; alleged to be an example of "error" in the Bible, but archaeology confirmed Biblical references. Had iron weapons and used formal treaties. Historians practiced revisionism
The Mediterranean's greatest traders, navigators, shipbuilders, and colonizers; their most popular export: cloth dyed purple
dominated camel caravan trade. Their language (Aramaic) became the international language of the Near East
militaristic & cruel people, ruled by terror, deported the "10 lost tribes" of Israel
joined with the Medes to overthrow the Assyrians
located in modern Iran -- their empire will be massive. had a "royal highway"
Cyrus the Great
one of the "greatest conquerors in the history of the ancient Near East"
Epic of Gilgamesh
written before Genesis
Aegean Age: Minoans, Mycenaeans, Dorians
Greek "Dark Ages"
Hellenic Age: city-states emerge - encompasses the Greek "Golden Age"
The Peloponnesian War(s)
The Hellenistic Age: "Greek-like" - after Alexander to Augustus
selfish, unprincipled appeals to popular passions and prejudices
located in Athens
ruled by the "best"
ruled by a monarch, a king or queen, may involve a royal family
ruled by a few
ruled by elected leaders
Why are the Greeks important?
the same as England or Alabama
greeks influenced by:
Mountains and Sea (few natural resources, led to colonization)
a major town with its surrounding territory
located on the island of Crete; commercialized agriculture appears, prosperous trade
located at Mycenae (Greek mainland)
The Greek Dark Ages
began after the destruction caused by a Dorian invasion
Greeks defeated an invading Persian army at Marathon
a commercial and sea-faring community; practiced direct democracy (participation of all citizens: men with two Athenian parents). Their freedom had limits: dangerous politicians could be banished/exiled for 10 years: ostracism
similar to modern totalitarian states. isolated and agricultural. slaves (helots) outnumbered citizens 10-1. slaves were in agriculture, craft, and domestic settings, so Spartans were free for "other" pursuits
fought over who would control Greece. Athens vs Sparta (Sparta prevails)
called for truces during the games. men only
King of Macedonia
Alexander the Great
Son of Phillip II, spread greek culture eastward during Hellenistic age/period
spans c. 300 years from the death of Alexander until Ptolemaic Greece was defeated by Augustus at Actium
Upon Alexander's death...
empire was divided and given to four officers/generals
moves from mythology to philosophy
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
led a countermovement grounded upon the notion that truth is real and discoverable
the finest pleasures are intellectual
the universe is controlled by something
founder of Athenian democracy
Statesman who dominated Athens during the "Golden Age"
famous Sophist; "man is the measure of all things"
taught by asking probing and penetrating questions. counseled "know yourself" and "the unexamined life is not worth living". sentenced to death by drinking hemlock
found the Academy in Athens to train the ruling class. "theory of reforms"
pupil of Plato, tutor to Alexander the Great. associated with elements of both deductive and inductive reading. laid down rules for syllogisms (a deductive scheme)