Period 4 Part II - APUSH

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42 Terms
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Worcester v. Georgia
high court ruled that the laws of Georgia did not apply within Cherokee territory; clash between state laws and fed courts and Jackson (OFC) sided with the states and #kickedthemoutofGeorgia
Pet banks
During his second term, Jackson attacked the bank of the US by withdrawing all federal funds → w/ the help of Roger Taney (Sec. of Treasury) he transferred funds into state banks called ___ by his critics
Panic of 1837
happened bc of Jackson’s wack financial decisions, especially after banknotes lost their value
Corrupt bargain
the alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay; Clay persuaded the House to give Adams enough votes to win the election → adams made clay his secretary of state
Tariffs of 1828 (Tariff of abominations)
a protective tariffs that consisted of unprecedented high duties on imported goods; south carolina declared the tariff unconstitutional → the nullification theory/crisis
*Nullification Crisis
Jackson (pres) v. Calhoun (VP and SC loyalist); “each state had the right to decide whether to obey a fed law or to declare it null/void” → debate between Webster of MA and Hayne of SC → SC held a convention to nullify both the tariff of 1828 and 1832 and passed a resolution that forbid the collection of tariffs in the state → Jackson told the Sec. of war to get the military ready and persuaded congress to pass the force bill (allowed him to act against SC) and the Proclamation to the people of SC (nullification and disunion = treason); HOWEVER, Jackson also opened a door to compromise (congress lowers tariff) and SC takes it and calms down
Two-party system
supporters of Jackson (democrats) reflected ideals of the old Demo-repub party; and the supporters of Clay (Whigs) reflected morals from the old Federalist party; both displayed the changed conditions of the Jacksonian era (like western expansion)
*Extinction (removal of indians, etc)
settlers struggled with the fragility of wildlife → cleared forests and hunted buffalo and beavers to this (IDEK IF THIS IS CORRECT I WILL CHECK WITH HOEK)
Cultural nationalism
young adults were excited by western expansion, thrilled by the absence of war (for the time being), and believed that the nation was entering an era of unlimited prosperity; PATRIOTISM infected everything created during this period
Utopian societies
the idea of withdrawing from conventional society to create an IDEAL community
before war; specifically this time between the end of the War of 1812 and the Civil War
artistic and intellectual movement in Europe during the early years of the 19th century; move away from Enlightenment (reason, order, etc.) and towards intuition and feelings and the study of nature; expressed clearly through transcendentalists (small group of NE thinkers)
Hudson river school
founded by Thomas Cole; emphasized the heroic beauty of American landscapes, especially along the Hudson River and the western frontier; expressed the romantic age’s fascination with nature
Second Great Awakening
religious revivals that swept through the US during the late 18th cen-first half of the 19th cen; some revivals marked the reassertation of the Puritan teaching of sin/predestination and others represented new developments in Christianity; resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women's rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s
a new era of religious leaders who preached and wrote books; increased faith and Christian church became very popular in America
not the same one as today lol; religious enthusiasm came from the belief of the end of the world and the second coming of Jesus; William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers predicting the day of his coming → nothing happened but the Millerites evolved into a new denomination (the Seventh-Day Adventists)
Church of Jesus Christ Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
formerly known as the Mormon church and founded by Joseph Smith; based beliefs off of the book of Mormon and traced a connection between Natives and teh lost tribes of Israel; faced STRONG opposition, Smith was murdered by a mob, and they settled along the banks of Great Salt Lake in Utah (then called New Zion)
American temperance society
founded by Protestant ministers + those concerned w/drinking; high rates of alcohol consumption → reformers target alcohol as the cause for crime, poverty, abuse, etc. → this group tried to persuade drinkers to take a pledge of total abstinence
Women's christian temperance union
strengthened the temperance movement when abolitionism was the focus; achieved national success with the passage of the 18th amendment in 1919 (banning the sale of alcohol)
Common (public) school movement
Horace Mann was the leading advocate of this; he was the secretary of the MA board of education; pushed for mandatory attendance for all children, a longer school year, and increased teacher prep; movement spread rapidly to other states
Seneca Falls Convention
leading feminists met in a town in NY; FIRST WOMEN’S RIGHTS CONVENTION IN AMERICAN HISTORY; issued a doc closely modeled after the declaration of independence (declaration of sentiments); “all men and women were created equal” then listed the grievances that have been against women
*American Colonization Society
the idea of transporting those people freed from slavery to an African colony was first tried in 1817; this appealed to some opponents of slavery and especially white people who wanted to remove all freed black ppl from the US society; 1822→ established an African American settlement in Liberia; yet the African-Americans did not want to leave
American Antislavery Society
Abolitionist society founded by William Loyd Garrison, who advocated the immediate abolition of slavery; stepped up his attacks by condemning and burning the Constitution as a proslavery doc; “no Union with slaveholders” until they repented for their sins and freed their slaves
Cult of domesticity
the idealized view of women as moral leaders in the home (because the men were out working)
Slave codes
laws passed by southern states to prevent slaves’ rebellion and/or escape
*King Cotton
Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry and the North’s reliance on it ; James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!"
*Peculiar institution
Slavery was an institution unique to only southern society (started when 20 African slaves came to Virginia on a Dutch ship.) The Mason-Dixon Line separated slavery and freedom; the North and the South. Slaves in total made up 1/3 of the total southern population, and about ½ the population in the Deep South.
John Quincy Adams
6th president from 1825-1829; served in the Senate and House of Representatives; son of a former President; helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State; lost his re-election to Andrew Jackson; viewed as one of the greatest diplomats in American history
Ralph Waldo Emerson
TRANSCENDENTALIST; American writer and speaker; the individualistic and nationalistic spirit of Americans urging them to create their own culture and not copy Europe; self-reliance, independent thinking and primacy of spiritual matters over material ones
Nathaniel Hawthorne
questioned the intolerance and conformity in American life in short stories and novels; including The Scarlet Letter
Joseph Smith
founder of the former Mormon church (now the Church of Latter-Day Saints; traced connections between AI and the lost tribes of Israel according to his beliefs in the Book of Mormon; believed in polygamy
Brigham Young
led the Latter-Day Saints after the death of the og leader was murked; led and migrated with them to the Great Salt Lake in Utah
Dorthea Dix
former school teacher who publicized the unjust treatment of mentally ill persons being placed into unsanitary cells with convicted criminals; convinced state legislatures to build mental hospitals for people to obtain professional treatment
Horace Mann
leading advocate for the common (public) school movement; “father of public education”
Susan B. Anthony
after the seneca falls convention was one of the major leaders for the campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women
*William Lloyd Garrison
a founder of the American Antislavery Society; began publishing The Liberator (an abolitionist newspaper); condemned and burned (literally?) the Constitution as a proslavery doc; “no union with slaveholders”
Frederick Douglass
formerly enslaved black abolitionist; spoke about the brutality and degradation of slavery from a firsthand exp; argued for the political and direct action to end slavery and racial prejudice; started the antislavery journal The North Star
Harriet Tubman
escaped slave who returned to the south to help others flee to refuge; helped organize the effort to assist fugitive slaves escape to free territory in the North or to Canada (free places)
Sojourner Truth
important spokesperson for the abolitionist movement and was an influential bridge between that and the women's rights movement a slave who escaped from the south; faced lots of prejudice from anit-femininst white abolitionists who expected free black people to be quiet members of the movement;
Nat Turner
enslaved virginian who led a revolt that killed 55 white people; as a result, the militia killed Turner and his followers, but also many innocent people were killed bc of this revolt (white ppl killed them brutally)
Lucretia Mott
activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls convention; active suffragette who declared in reading the Declaration of Sentiments, “all men and women are created equal”