Endocrine System: Hormones

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1. membrane-bound receptor hormones
2. intracellular receptor hormones
The hormone cannot pass through the cells and needs a gated channel (non-steriods)
The hormone that can pass easily through cells. (Steroids)
1. Hormone binds to receptor causing receptor to change shape

2. Receptor binds to a subunit of the G protein inside the cell

3. Subunit releases GDP then binds with and it is actived by GTP

(check image)
4. Subunit combines with other proteins to either:
    1. Open ion channels when Ca2+ acts as an intracellular mediator 
        Example: in smooth muscle
    2. Activate cAMP (adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP) whcih activates enzymes through phosphorylation (attachment of phosphates) to increase or decrease their activity
        Example: Glucagon increases release of glucose in liver
What is Intracellular Receptors?
They can pass through cells but interact with DNA to produce a new one. Takes several hours as they are creating a new one. (Ex:Steroid hormone)
What is frequency modulated system?
What is Chronic Hormone Regulation?
Relatively constant concentrations are maintained for long periods of time, Ex: GH or Thyroid
What is Acute Hormone Regulation?
Hormone rapidly increases in response to stimulus. Example: Epinephrine
Cyclic Hormone Regulation
 Increases and decreases in the concentration occur at roughly the same time and in the same amount. Example: Estrogen and Progesterone (period cycles)