Chemistry of Life (Ware)

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- 1950s, to recreate conditions of primitive earth to see what might given rise to molecules of first organisms
- created amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, adenine, ATP
Structural Organization of cellular organisms

Each level is part of next, higher level
- consists of 2 hydrogens, 1 oxygen
- neutral
- oxygen end has slight - charge, hydrogen end has slight + charge
- the attraction between the hydrogen atom on one water molecule and the oxygen atom on another water molecule
- affected by polarity
- water molecule: 4 hydrogen bonds

C,H,O in a carbon-ring form

General Formula: (CH2O)x

Role: short/ long term energy, fuel for cellular respiration (glucose), component of cells

Monomer: monosaccharide (simple sugar): glucose, fructose

Polymer: polysaccharides (starches like glycogen for animal, cellulose)

Glycerol with 3 fatty acid tails
lots of C, lot ofs H, some O

General Formula: CH3(CH2)nCOOH

- HYDROPHOBIC so waterproofing of surfaces, insulation in animals, steroid hormones, long-term energy storage

Saturated: carbons in chain have 4 single bonds ("saturated" with H)
Unsaturated: some carbon atoms in bond has double bonds, less H
a chemical reaction that BONDS two monomers together
by removing 2H and 1O (1 H2O) in the process

Absorbs energy
proteins that act as biological CATALYST - lower's reaction activation energy to speed up rate of chemical reaction

reactants= substrates - binds with enzyme at the activation site

- either tertiary or quaternary
- takes larger structures (like proteins, fats or tissues) and breaks them down into smaller units (such as cells or fatty acid)

(digesting food)

creating bigger, complex molecules from smaller, simpler molecules for future use