inr exam 2

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169 Terms
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are essential to any political institution
people and the social contract
people are active in the social contract people can decide they no longer want to be apart of the contract
example of people and the social contract
it took 10 years for soviet union to collapse collapsed peacefully because people wanted change gorbachev said army wouldnt intervene if they decided they wanted to break apart like czechoslovakia wanting to be two different states
problem of order
has been affected by global issues like health and the economy
without the people
there is no social contract and there is no order the solution to issues of power come from the people
people and political anarchy
people need to be active, individual agents because of political anarchy because no one is in charge and no state can take control
citizenship can be seen as
within the states
the interdependence and interconnectedness of states
the first debate of citizenship
should citizenship be primarily local or global?
the second debate of citizenship
can non state institutions be places for the exercise of the rights and duties of citizenship?
the notion of citizenship is tied to?
a government
examples of citizenship being tied to government
travel documents like passports can be regional, like were countries in the EU allow for people to travel between countries easily
the third debate of citizenship
can we think of who are the global citizens?
citizenship is given...
and defines who people are in the world but the concept is limited and often leads to migrants being stuck and left without citizenship
is citizenship a constructed concept?
citizenship is...
an exercise of power by the state either given at birth or after completing certain forms
it is necessary to
question usual notions of power apply a new concept of power
is essential to human life on the planet
states have the power to decide
who becomes a citizen or not
example of symbolic notion of power
by practice and constitution, the queen doesnt really participate in politics lol the monarchy is a symbolic role unless they have to approve a new PM
citizenship has more
symbolic value than politics
defining feature of world politics
is that we do not have a world government
global citizen
someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community's values and practices
to be a global citizen
means that one must act as a global citizen
acting as a global citizen
can occur through ngos and social media use of technology
the internet
a symbolic space that cannot be controlled
symbolic gestures, rituals, and words
deal with the cultures and values of the human people therefore play a role in politics because what is important to them becomes an issue of life and death
can be a form of political action example: women in iran taking off their hijabs in protest against the morality police
two aspects of sovereignty
internal/domestic external dimension
internal/domestic sovereignty
the government is the highest legal authority over its land and the people the government is called the sovereign the states in the us also have their own levels of sovereignty
example of internal/domestic sovereignty
laws specific to florida do not apply to rest of the us
external dimension
beyond the control of any one state states see each other as having their own level of sovereignty and recognize laws and powers of other states can also be that states reject/ignore sovereignty
external sovereignty is granted by
outsiders and other states
example of external sovereignty
palestine wanting their own state but the international community does not see them as sovereign
you can claim internal sovereignty but...
it does not equal external sovereignty
the deployment and exercise of power
the notion of global citizenship...
cannot be controlled by the states
internet and power
before the internet, states could declare where their power applied now that is no longer possible because of social media and hacking it has redefined sovereignty
every person as an individual...
is an agent as a social individual
social individuals
have the power as a human being to transform the world and the ability to carve out their own spheres of autonomy and freedom to act
populism aims
to stand up for the people
populism can weaken or strengthen...
global citizenship
a political tendency that seeks to separate the people of an imagined heartland from allegedly self-interested and corrupt elites
another way to phrase populism
the conditions you are living in are responsible because of a certain group of people
populism asserts
that the elites are responsible for the social and economic problems perceived to affect "the people" or "the nation"
populism proposes
that the people are the way to fix whats wrong in the state
populism and italy's elections
a new government was elected by a new prime minister who is a part of a neo fascist party that came from wwii fascism all while claiming to be speaking for the people
populism and the cold war
the western and eastern fronts would describe each other in the same terms
populism is always a
risk in a democratic system
blur the line between truth and falsehood when trying to separate the two groups
populism's changes
changes in place changes in time changes in scope
umbrella revolution
2014 and 2018-2020 in hong kong umbrellas became a symbol of protests during the events involved popular protests against authoritarian rule and lack of democracy
organization of petroleum exporting countries
if opec increases or decreases oil prices...
it affects our livelihood
why is power important important in world politics?
because of anarchy nobody is fully in control so more power means you have more control on the world stage
power allows for
countries to act in their own self interest
symbolic power
protecting symbolic power
every country has big power so when anything bad is said, they try to disprove it and defend their image in order to protect their symbolic power
rhetorical threats have to be
followed up with action
different types of power are always...
limited/traditional concept of power
actor A controls actor B to do what B would not otherwise do
example of limited/traditional power
russia forcing ukraine to abide by the wishes of the kremlin and putin
resolve of the people to defend their homeland
can be stronger than nuclear war examples: ukraine, vietnam, wars of liberation
political anarchy means
that international law is different from domestic law
international court of justice
a court established to settle disputes between members of the united nations works differently because we do not have a centralized agency thats in business of enforcing the law
the classical example of power
the balance of power
cold war
equal amount of power between russia and the us both balanced each others power with equal influence across the world
pakistan and india
under british rule, it was one country ethnic conflict after the rule made it so muslim indians broke off into pakistan they had wars between each other and didnt sign a treaty but now they balance each others powers india obtained its first bomb then pakistan
interdependence and technology
makes borders more open therefore classical balance of power is no longer a form of interpretation and analysis of governments and conflicts
scholars of world politics
employ multiple conceptions of power and have developed different conceptual frameworks that encourage rigorous attention to power in its different forms
power is
the production in and through social relations of effects that shape the capabilities of actors and determine their circumstances and fate
social relations
interactions between actors
blaming and shaming
states dont like to be shamed or blamed even if they know theyve done something wrong they refuse to be shamed on the world stage
if you dont have capacities to determine your fate
you do not have power
capacities can be
economic political social
two crucial dimensions to understanding power
how power is expressed the specificity of social relations of power
how power is expressed
the kinds of social relations through which actors capacities are shaped and manifested
the specificity of social relations of power
direct diffuse
knowing what to not to say or when to say it
opec and oil
working together to affect oil prices shows how they are a part of a social relations network since they are held accountable by each other
amend sherman act to make oil producting and exporting cartels illegal meant to punish opec countries by raising prices of oil by reducing production of oil
russia and opec
they want to produce more because the war in ukraine has put their economy in shambles
compulsory power
one actor has direct control over another actor
example of compulsory
russia invading ukraine to punish them for not siding with russia using nuclear weapons to deter
institutional power
actors' control over socially distant others
example of institutional power
united nations is a huge institution un security council un can sanction russia
a set of rules, resources, actors, and practices
key features of institutions (arrpp)
actors rules resources practices persistence
the biggest key feature of an institution
persistence in time
the overlap between institutional power and compulsory power
institutional power may want to force others or refrain from others to do something example: economic sanctions on the un or when afghanistan in 2001
productive power
production of agents through diffuse social relations it produces us the agents and gives us power
example of productive power
markets produce citizens as consumers and producers colonial occupation of country produces local citizens as freedom fighters
all three types of power
are often working in combination with each other
power can involve being
powerful and not being powerful at the same time
to be power and not to be powerful
the logic that should be applied in trying to understand power and exercise
the executive
is in charge of defining and acting on behalf of the country when dealing with the outside world
hans j morgenthau
german politics among nations believed states power comes from material capabilities
two power changes in the 70s
emergence of 120 nations the cold war
what do states worry about?
survival, therefore they are unitary
morgenthau felt that states were...
states can never be certain...
about other states' institutions because of anarchy
national interest
is defined in terms of power if you do not have power, national interest is in danger
why do states want to get more power?
because survival is defined by how much power you have
examples of power for survival
biden not wanting the us to rely on outside resources
morgenthau believed in
the idea of self reliance
power is not always about
material power example: russia is falling behind and cant keep land annexed but ukraine is more persistent and resilient
dissolved the soviet union promoted economic and political reform (glasnost and perestroika)
the end of the soviet union
led to the idea that authoritarian regimes can be absolved peacefully
steffano guzzini
power, realism, and constructivism
steffano guzzino
the concept of power plays an important role into our political life
the concept of power
defines that space of political action and its justification it is what we think of it and define it
attributing power is not innocent...
it implies that things could have been done otherwise
what does power do?
its how one thinks about the other actor...
that makes you decide if you give them power or not
power that constructs/destructs/reconstructs
power is essential and defines the agency of actors
the moment you're an agent
you have a level of power
because attributions of power define the realm of politics...
they are a part of politics
one hegemonic power
two powers in control
multiple competing powers
internal sovereignty
when the government has the highest authority over the people can the government do what it needs to do to run its institutions within its own borders seen as legitimate
external sovereignty
can the state act on the world stage without interference from anyone else can they accomplish their goals on a global stage
soft power
based on influencing someone to do something
hard power
traditional sense having military and guns to flex on the world stage
diffuse power is more about
how authority spreads
direct power is more
concept of a global citizen
like minded individuals across the globe, cross-cultural assimilations
example of global citizen
the emergence of a lingua franca or a common language
can you be stateless and still be a global citizen?
global citizenship encompasses
global goals and beliefs
schengen area
passports are not required more regional and global you can live and work visa free
eu is trying to establish
supernational citizenship
generally refers to the legal status (rights and duties) between an individual and the national state in which they reside in
how do global citizens perceive themselves?
as members of a global community such people are aware of the wider world, respect and value diversity and are willing to
citizenship as a legal status
in the us, you gain it when youre born in the us other countries hand it out based on if their grandparents were born there
hans morgenthau summarized
states are unitary actors, regional thinkers states possess power through material capabilities national interest and actions are dictated by power uncertain about other states' intentions international system = anarchic emphasis on domination
stefano guzzini summarized
power is important and defines the space of a political action power is not innocent power constructs/destructs/reconstructs the world definition and assignment of power is itself exercising power
michel foucault summarized
power relations are all in social interactions omnipresent and ubiquitous capillary power and resistance is a key relationship
power and resistance
is a key relationship with perpetuating negotiation between power and resistance
pierre bourdieu summarized
symbolic power the power to impose upon other minds a vision, old or new, of social divisions depends on the social authority acquired in previous struggles
symbolic capital according to bourdieu
its a credit it is the power granted to those who have obtained sufficient recognition to be in a position to impose recognition
populist movements abuse...
symbolic power