Biochemistry Quiz 3
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Myoglobin's function depends on what 2 things?
ability to bind to oxygen ability to release oxygen where and when needed
Is binding of a protein and ligand reversible?
What is the symbol for the association constant?
coordinated set of interactions among many classes of proteins, molecules, and cell types
white blood cells
what are the 2 complementary systems of the immune response
humoral and cellular immune system
what does the humoral immune system do and what type of cells?
directed at bacterial infections and extracellular viruses, B cells
What does the cellular immune system do and what type of cells?
destroys infected host cells, parasites, and foreign tissues, T cells
First line of defense
what kind of immunity is nonspecific
what kind of immunity is specific
what type of immunity produces B cell antibodies
what type of immunity produces white blood cells (natural killer cells)
What type of immunity has memory functions
what 2 types of cells are in the cellular immune response
Cytotoxic T cells and Helper T cells
What type of cell produce soluble signaling proteins called cytokines
Helper T cells
What type of cell recognizes infected cells or parasites by using cell receptors on its surface
Cytotoxic T cells
antibodies are also called
immunoglobulins do what?
bind bacteria, viruses, and other foreign molecules and target them for destruction
what type of cell produces antibodies/ immunoglobulins?
How many heavy and light chains does an immunoglobulin have?
2 of each
How many domains does an immunoglobulin have?
How many subunits does an immunoglobulin have?
How many domains are constant in the immunoglobulins?
Why are there domains in the immunoglobulins that vary?
Because these are the antigen binding sites
The Fab regions do what?
bind antigen (1 site per branch)
Fc region does what
facilitate biological activity
what motif is found in immunoglobulins?
the antibody hinge region is rich in what
proline (to prevent globular folding)
molecule or pathogen capable of eliciting an immune response
small molecules that can elicit an immune response when covalently attached to large proteins
antibodies or T cell receptors bind to this part of the antigen
what type of forces facilitate contact between antibody and antigen
conformational changes in the antibody and/or antigen allow the complementary groups to interact fully
contain a mixture of antibodies that recognize different parts of the protein
produced by injecting a protein into an animal
homogeneous, all recognizing the same epitope.
Synthesized by a population of identical B cells (a clone)
2 antibody techniques
ELISA and Western blot/ immunoblot
ELISA stand for what?
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay
Helicobacter pylori is a gram positive or gram negative bacteria?
In the primer article Ha et. al, how many trimeric structures are there in of H. Pylori urease.
4 trimeric units
In Ha et al. how many domain(s) are/is there in the beta subunit of each trimeric unit.
2 domain per beta subunit
In Ha et al. where do they say the active site/s are located?
in the alpha subunit (1 per unit)
How many active sites are there in H. Pylori Urease?
How many alpha and beta subunits are there in one trimeric unit?
Each trimeric unit is composed of 3 monomers. Each monomer has 1 alpha and 1 beta. Thus in a trimeric unit there are 3 alphas and 3 betas.
What is attached at the c-terminus of the beta subunit?
amino acids for the formation of the trimer
H. Pylori urease is what kind of assembly?
What did they do in the Ha et al. paper?
Crystalized H. Pylori and determined its structure.
Urease activity _____ over time when in the presence of AHA (inhibitor)
When urease is not paired with AHA (inhibitor), the the amount of ammonia _____ the longer it is incubated?
What type of cells does the humoral response use?
B cell/ immunoglobulins