all of the nerves that branch off of the spinal cord
What is the function of the PNS?
connects the brain and spinal cord to your skin and allow you to feel pain and other sensations
What are the two parts of the PNS?
autonomic and somatic nervous systems
What does the ANS do?
controls involuntary bodily functions and regulates glands
What does the SNS do?
controls muscle movement and relays information from the ears, eyes, and skin to the CNS
What are efferent nerves also called?
What are afferent nerves also called?
What do efferent nerves do?
transmit impulses from the CNS out to the muscles, skin, and glands
What do afferent nerves do?
bring sensory information from the outside world into the brain like vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, pain, and temperature
Which part of the nervous system is involuntary?
Autonomic nervous system
Which part of the nervous system is voluntary?
Somatic nervous system
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
blood pressure, digestion, heart rate
What does the somatic nervous system control?
Which glial cells are in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
Schwann and satellite cells
What are astrocytes?
found between neurons and capillaries. give nutrients to neurons and control the chemical environment. make up nearly half of the neural tissue in the body.
What are microglia?
absorb and dispose of dead cells and bacteria.
What are the three kinds of neurons?
Sensory, motor, and interneuron
What are interneurons/association neurons?
mostly found in the brain and spinal cord and carry sensory information and regulate motor activity by connecting spinal motor and sensory neurons (basically the communication neuron between other neurons)
What are unipolar neurons?
have a single axon with dendrites on the peripheral end and axon terminals on the central end, rarest to find in skin in the PNS
What are ependymal cells?
form a protective covering around the spinal cord and central cavities within the brain.
What are oligodendrocytes?
wrap around nerve fibers and produce a fatty insulating material called myelin.
What are Schwann cells?
maintenance and regeneration of axons of neurons in the PNS.
What do sensory neurons do?
transmit impulses from a receptor (like the eye or ear) to the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord)
What do motor neurons do?
allow our bodies to speak, swallow, and breathe by sending commands from the brain to the muscles that carry out those functions and they have the longest nerve fibers (spinal cord to the toes).
What are bipolar neurons?
have one axon and one dendrite, found in the eyes and nose
What are multipolar neurons?
have one axon and multiple dendrites, all motor neurons and interneurons are multipolar
the ability to transmit nerve impulses
an electric change that transmits information to and from the brain
inside of the membrane is more negatively charged than the outside
electrical charge inside of the membrane becomes more positive
restoring the membrane to its original polarized resting state
the time between the completion of the action potential and repolarization when the neuron is temporarily “fatigued”
an action potential that rapidly skips from node to node on myelinated neurons
the movement of action potentials along a nerve cell
What are the four types of reflexes?
Stretch, withdraw, crossed-extensor, and Golgi tendon reflex
What does the stretch reflex do?
It prevents strains and tear injuries to the muscles and tendons
What does the withdrawal reflex do?
protects humans against tissue necrosis from contact with pain or heat
What does the crossed extensor reflex do?
It allows the body to compensate on one side for a stimulus on the other
What does the Golgi tendon reflex do?
It acts as a protective feedback mechanism to control the tension of an active muscle by causing relaxation before the tendon tension becomes high enough to cause damage
What divides the left and right hemispheres of the brain?
Medial longitudinal fissure
What makes up the brainstem (in order from top to bottom)?
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What are the different meninges (in order from inner to outer)?
pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
What is Broca's area?
It is the part of the brain responsible for speech production and controlling the speech network
What is Wernicke's area?
It is a part of the brain responsible for the comprehension of speech
What are the different lobes of the brain?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What is the frontal lobe responsible for?
Important for voluntary movement, expressive language, collecting cognitive skills, managing higher level executive functions
What is the parietal lobe responsible for?
Sensory perception and integration, including the management of taste, hearing, sight, touch, and smell
What is the temporal lobe responsible for?
Important for processing auditory information and with the encoding of memory
What is the occipital lobe responsible for?
Important for visual perception, including colour, form and motion
Can nicotine pass the blood-brain barrier?
Can alcohol pass the blood-brain barrier?
Can ibuprofen pass the blood-brain barrier?
Can antibiotics pass the blood-brain barrier?
What are the causes of Alzheimer's disease?
Age-related changes to the brain, genetics, and environmental/lifestyle factors
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
Memory loss, poor judgement, repeating questions, forgetting information
What system is affected by Alzheimer's disease?
The brain and nerve cells
What are the causes of cerebral palsy?
Gene mutations, maternal infections, bleeding into the brain in the womb
What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?
Delays in development milestone, stiffness, floppiness, fidgeting
What system is affected by cerebral palsy?
What are the causes of dementia?
Diet, exercise, excessive alcohol use, smoking
What are the symptoms of dementia?
Memory loss, difficulty concentrating, struggling with daily tasks, mood changes
What systems are affected by dementia?
What are the causes of epilepsy?
Stroke, brain tumor, severe head injury, lack of oxygen at birth
What are the symptoms of epilepsy?
Uncontrollable jerking and shaking, stiffness, loss of awareness
What systems are affected by epilepsy?
The vagus nerve
What are the causes of meningitis?
Bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, injuries, cancer, drugs
What are the symptoms of meningitis?
High fever, headache, sickness, stiff neck, seizures
What systems are affected by meningitis?
The brain and spinal cord
What are the causes of multiple sclerosis?
Immune system attacking the brain and nerves, genetic and environmental factors
What are the symptoms of multiple sclerosis?
Fatigue, vision issues, numbness, muscle spasms
What systems are affected by multiple sclerosis?
The brain and spinal cord, myelin sheaths
What are the causes of paraplegia?
Cerebral palsy, cancer, nerve conditions, stroke
What are the symptoms of paraplegia?
Inability to feel limbs, loss of control of bladder and bowel movements, tingling in the limbs
What systems are affected by paraplegia?
What are the causes of Parkinson's disease?
Loss of nerve cells in part of the brain
What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
Tremors, muscle stiffness, slowness
What systems are affected by Parkinson's disease?
Nerve cells in the basal ganglia
What are the causes of quadriplegia?
Damage to the base of the neck or skull, trauma, car accident, fall, multiple sclerosis
What are the symptoms of quadriplegia?
Back pain, weakness, loss of bladder or bowel control, difficulty walking
What systems are affected by quadriplegia?
The brain and spinal cord
What are the causes of a traumatic brain injury?
Fall, firearm-related injury, car accident, assault
What are the symptoms of a traumatic brain injury?
Loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting or nausea, seizures
What systems are affected by a traumatic brain injury?
The cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, hippocampus
What neurotransmitter is released by the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system?
What is gyri?
A ridge on the surface of the brain
What is the sulci?
A groove or furrow on the surface of the brain
What is a fissure?
A deeper groove than the sulcus
What is gray matter?
Tissue that contains cell bodies
What is white matter?
Tissue that contains axons
What causes saltatory conduction?
The ensheathment of neurons with the myelin
What is a spinal nerve?
A nerve that interacts directly with the spinal cord to modulate motor and sensory information from the PNS