online quiz #2

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158 Terms
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trait approach
- personality traits are stable over time - personality can change
personality traits
degree to which a person is shy, creative, friendly, etc and is fairly consistent from year to year and even over decades
rank-order change vs. stability
people tend to maintain in the way in which they are different from other people of the same age
mean-level change vs. stability
at the mean level you can see that there is change
change, maintain
As we grow older our personality ________ but relative to other people we ________ our ranks.
personality development
change in the mean level of a personality trait over time
ego development
ability to deal with the social and physical world and to think for oneself when making moral decisions
cohort effects
people of different ages may differ because they grew up in different social and physical environments
longitudinal studies
- same people are repeatedly measured over the years - better method for studying development
the "personality" of a very young, pre-verbal child
__________ is partially determined by genetics.
heterotypic continuity
the reflection of consistency of fundamental differences in personality that changes with age
Physical factors
________ ________ affect the experiences people have and are consistent throughout life.
Environmental factors
_______ _______ affect how people think, feel, and behave.
Birth order
_____ _____ IS NOT responsible for rank-order stability or personal differences among people.
early adverse experience
- rejection by parents predicts difficulty forming relationships - being bullied predicts anxiety, paranoid thoughts, disorganized thinking - stress during childhood from poverty or maltreatment predicts stronger emotional reactions to daily stress
positive adverse experience
- more educated parents have adult children who are more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable - cognitive stimulating activities, physical comfort, and present father predicts higher self-esteem
person-environment transactions
people tend to respond to, seek out, and create environments that are compatible with and magnify personality traits
active person-environment transaction
people seek out situations that are compatible with their personalities or avoid situations that they perceive as incompatible
reactive person-environment transaction
people with different personalities react differently to the same situations
evocative person-environment transaction
people do not choose their environment they change them
psychological maturity
behavioral consistency for traits that help one fulfill adult roles
cumulative continuity principle
personality becomes stable with age
maturity principle
people become better at dealing with the demands of life with age
plasticity principle
personality can change at any time but it may be difficult
role continuity principle
taking on a role can lead to consistency over time
identity development principle
consistency from self-view
social investment principle
changing social roles can cause personality change
corresponsive principle
person-environment transactions can cause personality traits to remain consistent even magnify over time
causes of development
- intelligence and linguistic ability increase steadily throughout childhood and early adolescence - hormone levels change throughout childhood - different social roles throughout different stages of life - life demands different things at different stages of life so conscientiousness fluctuates
social clock
the traditional expectations of society for when a person is expected to have achieved certain goals
Every individual develops ______ aspects of identity one on top of the other.
an individual develops the skills, traits, and roles that will allow one to begin to take place in society
a person who is guided by goals and values
when one can tell their life story
_____________ can produce long term behavioral changes.
conditions for personality change
1. person must think that changing some aspect of personality is desirable and change is possible 2. person must follow up by beginning to change the relevant behaviors one by one 3. over time changed behaviors will become habitual 4. may find that those traits have stabilized higher than before
biological approach
personality traits reflect physiological differences, are strongly influenced by genetics, and are rooted in evolutionary history
regions, circuits, networks
______, _______, and _______ in the brain are associated with particular aspects of personality and social behavior.
studies people with specific brain damage
Phineas Gage
- a dynamite explosion sent a 3ft rod through his left cheek into the frontal lobes of his brain - caused an inability to emotionally react to decision making - frontal lobes control impulsivity and self control
the neural connections that don't get used become disconnected due to the conditioning of the environment we are in
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
uses rapidly changing magnetic fields to temporarily "knock out" areas of brain activity
electroncenphalography (EEG)
electrodes are placed on the scalp to pick up electrical signals generated by the brain activity underneath
magnetoencephalography (MEG)
uses delicate sensors to direct magnetic indication of brain activity
positron emission tomography (PET scans)
creates map of the brain activity by following the location of harmless radioactive transfer injected into the bloodstream
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
monitors magnetic pulses generated by oxygen in the bloodstream where the brain is most active in a given moment
frontal lobe
- part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead - the ability to plan ahead, anticipate consequences, and for aspects of emotional experiences
- an almond-shaped neural structure in the anterior part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum - links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning
anterior cingulate
- important for experiencing normal emotions inhibited by the amygdala - controlling emotional responses and behavior impulses
posterior cingulate
important for processing information about time and space in reacting rapidly to stressful situations
secretes several hormones
processes memories
regulates arousal
critical for communication between neurons
High levels of _______ lead to exploratory behavior, positive emotion, and responsiveness to rewards.
Low levels of _______ lead to depression, anxiety, and obsessive worrying.
biological chemicals that affect the entire body
High levels of _______ are associated with dominance, aggression, and competitiveness, and increased violent crime.
Chronically high ______ leads to anxiety and depression
Chronically low _______ leads to failure to respond to danger.
- mother-child bonding - romantic attachment and sexual response - decrease fearfulness - increases perceptions of trustworthiness and attractions in others
cognition, emotion
__________ and __________ are extremely intertwined.
the ability to complete a task in the face of obstacles and in the absence of immediate rewards
involved in effortless, reflective thinking about self and others
involved in effortless, reflective social thought
behavioral genetics
addresses how personality traits that differ among individuals are passed from parent to child and shared by biological relatives
belief that humanity could be improved through selective breeding
heritability coefficient
percentage of the variance of a trait in the population that can be attributed to variance in genes
examines how phenotypes may be attributed to variation in genotypes
Turkheimer's First Law
"everything is heritable" all traits vary
What does heritability tell you?
- genes matter - insight into effects to the environment
What does heritability not tell you?
- does not solve the nature vs. nurture puzzle - does not explain how genes affect personality
How does the environment interact with genes?
- learning: neural circuits built by genes - epigenetics: turns genes on or off
gene-environment interactions
the genotype only provides the design so it affects the behavioral phenotype indirectly by influencing biological structure and physiology as they develop within an environment
evolutionary approach
assumes that human behavioral patterns developed because they were helpful or necessary for survival in the evolutionary history of the species
a tendency to aid and protect other people
inclusive fitness
protecting those around you to ensure the survival of your own genes
Feelings of ____-______ evolved to monitor the degree to which a person is accepted by others.
psychodynamic approach
assumes that personality reflects the unique ways in which each person has resolved
free association
instructing the patient to say whatever came to mind
psychological determinism
biologically based drives creates needs, wishes, and fears that determine behavior
internal structure
made of parts that can function independently and conflict with each other
all drives and urges
constrains the id to reality
internalized values
compromise formation
the ego's main hob is to find a middle course between the competing demands of morality, motivation, and practicality and among the many things a person wants at the same time
Freud said "wishes suppressed during the day assert themselves in ______".
defense mechanism
resolve conflict and reduce anxiety
unpleasant thoughts and feelings are pushed out of awareness
convincing yourself that an unpleasant or traumatic event did not or will not occur
threatening impulse/desire is redirected elsewhere
generating logical reasons for outcomes that otherwise would not be acceptable
reaction formation
to block an unacceptable impulse the exact opposite behaviors/desires are displayed
projecting one's own unacceptable qualities onto others
convert unacceptable desire into acceptable behavior
Early _________ shape adult personality development.
psychosexual development
how life, energy, and libido becomes invested and then redirected over an individuals early years
secondary process thinking
the conscious part of the ego that thinks
primary process thinking
the way the unconscious mind operates and how the id is said to operate
conscious mind
least important layer that is the part of the mental functioning
preconscious mind
consists of ideas you are not thinking about at the moment by that you could bring to the consciousness
most important layer buried deep in the mind
a manifestation of an unconscious conflict revealing itself in your behavior
unintended actions caused by the leakage of suppressed thoughts or impulses
collective unconscious
set of culturally transmitted unconscious set of ideas that drives our behavior
fundamental images of people that are contained in the collective unconscious
psychosocial development
certain basic conflicts arise at different stages of life
attachment theory
patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life
strange situation
experiment in which a child is briefly separated from then reunited with their mother
anxious-ambivalent children
come from home situations where their caregivers behaviors are inconsistent
avoidant children
come from homes where they rebuffed repeatedly in their attempts to enjoy contact or reassurance
secure children
develop a confident faith in themselves and their caregivers
phemenological approach
subjective experience, personal constructs, culture, meaning in life, and positive psychology
one's conscious experience of the world
people have different perceptions of reality
free will
your personal agency and personal choices
- a 20th-century philosophical movement in Europe - focuses on the conscious experience, free will, the meaning of life, and other basic questions of existence - the individual is what is important and is free to make life however they want
the sensations you feel by being a biological organsim
consists of what you think and feel as a social being
experience of the experience itself
optimistic toughness
it is your existential responsibility to face your angst
humanistic psychology
emphasis on self-awareness, introspection, will power, motivation, imagination, creativity, free will, and positive human potential
doctrine of original sin
- people are inherently bad - socalization inhibits sexual and aggressive ways
doctrine of innate purity
- people are innately good - we are born moral and pure - society corrupts us
Carl Rogers
assumed that phenomenology is central, people have free will, people are basically good, and people have an innate need to make themselves and the world better
people have one basic tendency and are striving to actualize, maintain, and enhance their own experience
client-centered therapy
- the therapist is congruent with the client - the therapist provides the client with unconditional positive regard - the therapist shows empathetic understanding to the client
hierarchy of needs
- the human motivation - self-actualization is only active if the persons basic needs are met first
desire to control outcomes and gain mastery
desire to be a causal agent in one's own life
desire to interact to be connected to others
self-determination theory
entails seeking deeper meaning to life by pursuing important goals, building relationships, being aware, and taking responsibility of ones life choices
intrinsic motivation
the inclination towards spontaneous interest, exploration, and mastery of new information, skills, and experiences
- subjective experience of autotelic activity and the enjoyment itself - arises when the challenges of an activity present are well match with your skills
positive psychology
help people be creative and achieve their full potential
cross-cultural psychology
research that compares different cultures to understand them in their own terms
______ influences how individuals differ from one another.
Why is cross-cultural psychology important?
- understanding cultural differences is important for increasing understanding - for assessing the degree to which psychology applies to people around the world - appreciating the possible varieties of human experience
the degree to which the results of modern empirical research applies to humanity at large
group, between
Differences between members of a ______ are greater than differences _________ groups.
- a shared meaning system - enduring a set of beliefs, values, and customs passed down from generation to generation
process of socialization through which an individual acquires their native culture mainly in early life
process of partially or fully acquiring a new cultural outlook
aspects of a phenomenon that are specific to a particular culture
aspects of a phenomenon that all cultures have in common
easy cultures
individuals can pursue many different goals that are easy to attain
tough cultures
only a few goals are viewed as valuable and few ways are available to achieve them
achievement vs. love affiliation
a central aspect of any culture is the degree to which they emphasize the need to achieve
each culture has their own rich patterns of interpersonal relationships and political struggles
tight cultures
- formal and disciplined - have clearly stated strong social norms - rebuke those that stray from the norm
loose cultures
- informal - have weak or ambiguous norms - tolerant of deviant behavior
strengths of the head
artistic excellence, creativity, curiosity, critical thinking, and learning
strengths of the heart
fairness, mercy, gratitude, hope, love, and religion
- valuing the individual self over groups and relationships - strive for personal achievement - emphasize self-esteem
- valuing the group and relationship over the individual self - strive for group status - emphasize group harmony
any individual who has been exposed to and internalized two or more sets of cultural experiences
bicultural identity integration
degree to which a bicultural individual perceives their two cultural identities as "compatible" vs. "oppositional"