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World History Test 2 Vocab + Concepts

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suffrage
the right to vote (was extended to all male citizens, rather than just property owners)
Robespierre
A shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
Robespierre was a chief architect and it had hasty trials with quick executions
guillotine
a fast falling blade extinguished life instantly
Napoleon Bonaparte
A popular military hero who won a series of victories against the Austrians in Italy
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one's country (spread in France)
Marseilles
A port city in France where the national anthem for France was created
plebiscite
popular vote by ballot
Napoleonic Code
A code of laws made by Napoleon that embodied Enlightenment principles
annexed
incorporated into his empire
Continental System
Economic warfare tactic where Napoleon closed European ports to British goods.
guerrilla warfare
Hit and run raids by the Spanish patriots on French supply trains and troops
scorched-earth policy
Russian war tactic where soldiers retreated and burned crops and villages as they went to weaken French troops
abdicated
to step down from power
Congress of Vienna
Heads of state of Europe sat down to discuss how to restore stability and order in Europe
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
Concert of Europe
A meeting in which the powers of Europe met periodically to discuss problems affecting peace in Europe
natural laws
laws that govern human nature
Enlightenment
revolution in thinking-through the use of reason, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. Heaven could be achieved on Earth.
Thomas Hobbes
Wrote Leviathan, people naturally cruel, greedy, selfish, social contract, only a powerful government could control society, in the form of absolute monarchy.
John Locke
more optimistic, rejected absolute monarchy, wrote Treatises of Government, government had obligation to the people it government, people have the right to overthrow the government
social contract
agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society, put forth by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau
natural rights
rights that belonged to all human from birth, these include the right to life, liberty, and property.
Baron de Montesquieu
wrote the Spirit of the Laws, separation of powers best way to protect liberty, came up with idea of checks and balances, studied government of Europe, sharp criticism of absolute monarchy, admired limited monarchy
philosophes
"lovers of wisdom", thinkers who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society, from France
Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
used biting wit to expose abuses of the day, targeted corrupt officials and ideal aristocrats, he battled inequality, injustice, and superstition, detested salve trade and deplore religious prejudice, defended freedom of speech, detested by the French government and the Catholic Church
Denis Diderot
produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia-purpose to change general way of thinking while explaining new ideas, Pope threatened to excommunicate those who read the encyclopedia...
Rousseau
most controversial philosophe, came from poor home, believed that people in their natural state were basically good, wrote The Social Contract, good of community above individuals, profound hatred of all forms of political and economic oppression
Mary Wolstonecraft
well known British social critic, women should decide what's in their own interest, only education could given women tools they need to compete with men, understanding but also critical, women do have duties, but should have right, philosophes leave them out
physiocrats
thinks focused on economic reforms, looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system, rejected Mercantilism, make the land more productive
laissez faire
allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity, strong supporter of laissez faire, government has duty to protect society
How did the achievements of the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?
The Scientific Revolution transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. Scientific successors convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Using the methods of the new science, reformers set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society.These methods known as the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, the Enlightenment.
How did the philosophes influence ideas on society and the economy ?
They applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society. They spread the idea that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. They spread these beliefs through articles, books, and freedom of speech.
censorship
restricting access to ideas and information, created by church and government to stop Enlightenment
Candide
a humorous novel by Voltaire,1759, that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.
salon
informal social gatherings at which writer, artist, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas, originated in 1600s
Madame Geoffrin
ran one of the most respected salons
baroque
grand, complex style of art that glorified huge battles or lives of saints, huge, colorful, and full of excitement
rococo
more toned down than baroque, personal, elegant, and charming
Johann Sebastian Bach
German Lutheran, wrote complex and beautiful religious work for organ choirs, baroque music
George Frederick Handel
another German born, spent most of life in England, wrote the Messiah
Franz Joseph Haydn
important figure in the development of classical music, helped develop string quartet and symphony
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
child prodigy, composer and performer, wrote operas, symphony, and religious music, musical genius played in salons
Daniel Defoe
wrote the Robinson Crusoe and exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island
Enlightened despot
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Frederick II (or the Great)
Prussia king, 1740-1786, made government more efficient, religious tolerance, had Voltaire develop the Prussia academy of science
Catherine II (or the Great)
Russian Empress, 1762, granted nobles charter of rights, criticized serfdom, was an enlightenment despot
Joseph II
Hapsburg emperor in Austria, son and successor of Maria Theresa, disguised himself as a peasant to learn about problems people were facing "peasant emperor", abolished serfdom, sold property of clergy to build hospital, religious toleration to Protestants
Explain how each of the following affected the spread of new ideas: (a) censorship (b) salons.
Do to censorship writers began to disguise their opinions in works of writing in order to not have them burned, this allowed people to learn about new ideas and be able to spread them. The salons allowed people to meet and discuss ideas with each other spreading new ideas.
What were the goals of enlightened despots?
The goals of the enlightened despots was to bring political and social change.
How did the Enlightenment affect (a) arts and literature (b) the lives of the majority?
The arts evolved to meet changing taste. Courtly art and architecture were either in the Greek and Roman traditions or in baroque. Later game rococo. A new audience, the middle class, emerged with its own requirements. New kinds of musical entertainment evolved and literature developed new forms and wide audience. The lives of the majority did not change but the culture changed very slowly
How did the philosophes influence the enlightened despots?
The philosophes wanted to convince the ruling class that reform was necessary. The despots were the rulers they convinced. The philosophes persuaded the despots that equality and liberty were things worth working towards.
Why did it take so long for Enlightened ideas to reach most Europeans?
serfdom and resistance from some peasants slowed Enlightenment through the masses.
George III
English monarch at the time of the American Revolution. He worked to reassert royal power, dissolve the cabinet system, and make Parliment obey his will. Many of his policies were disasterous.
Stamp Act
Imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. It was created to help pay for the Seven Years' War and The French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris
The treaty in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the USA. French, British, American diplomats signed it to end the war.
James Madison
An American that helped write the constitution. He was greatly respected and later became the 4th president of the USA. His notebooks are our main sourse of info on the creation of the constitution.
George Washington
This man was chosen to lead the American Army. He worked to incorporate order and disipline into his soldiers and to give them pride and loyalty. After the War, he became the USA's 1st president.
Thomas Jefferson
A Virginian that was the principle author of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration echoed John Locke's ideas on natural rights and popular sovereignty.
Ben Franklin
An American philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat sent by congress to France to seek military and financial support. He became very popular in France. When he returned to America, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention.
federal republic
A type of gov't with power divided between the nat'l gov't and the states. In the case of the USA, the power is divided still further, into branches: executive, judical, and legislative.
popular sovereignty
A principle that states that all gov't power comes from the people.
Outline the events leading to the American Revolution.
1) Stamp Act. 2) Boston Massacre. 3) Boston Tea Party. 4) Constitutional Congress is formed. 5) The colonists declare independence from Britain.
Summerize the events and signifigance of the American Revolution.
1) The colonists declare independence from Britan=Start of the war. 2) The Battle of Saratoga=turning point in the war, persuaded France to help (the USA) in the war effort, then more European countries decided to help too. 3) The British surrender to Washington at Yorktown=British war effort crumbled. 4) Treaty of Paris=ends the war, Britan recognizes American independence.
Yorktown, Virginia
Where the British army surrendered to Washington, causing the British war effort to crumble.
How did the US constitution reflect the ideas of the Enlightenment?
In the Constitution there are: 3 branches of Gov't (Montesquieu) Natural Rights are protected (Locke) Bill of Rights (Philosophe's ideas in general)
Bastille
Royal fortress that was overran successfully by peasants that sparked the French Revolution...peasants took thousands of rifles and tons of gunpowder
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Lous XVI (16th)
Absolute King of France when they revolution started...he resists key reforms ..and was executed on charges of treason
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Estates General
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France dominated by clergy and nobles
Versailles Palace
Site in French countryside of great opulence that Louis XVI and Marie were taken from by peasant force back to Paris
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Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
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Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).
French Constitution of 1791
a constitution adopted during the French Revolution that established a constitutional monarchy in France.
Constitutional Monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
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Gulliotine
device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading
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Robespierre
leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror
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Marat
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Danton, George
A radical supporter and close ally of Robespierre who was eventually declared a traitor; he was executed the guillotine
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Committee for Public Safety
Led by Maximilien Robespierre, its chief task was to protect the revolution from its enemies. Under Robespierre's rule, the committee killed more than 20,000 people.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
Directory
Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years.
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)... Grew French Nationalist Spirit...Great Successes who ultimately was defeated on the battlefield
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corsica
Island where Napoleon was born
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Napoleonic Code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Plebiscite
A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
Joesphine Bonaparte
First wife of Napoleon
guerilla warfare tactics
hit and run technique named after Spanish attack on Napoleon's troops in Spain
Napoleon's invasion of Russia
failure due to the Russian winter and scorched earth policy
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Elba
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
St. Helena Island
A remote island in the South Atlantic where Napoleon was sent in his second exile, dying there six years later
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ideologies
systems of thought and belief
Conservaties of the early 1800s view
Wanted royal families to be restored to thrones and backed established churches. Natural rights and constitutional govs lead to chaos
Metternich
A convservative leader that sought to suppress revolutionary ideas opposed freedom of tee press, crushed protests in their own countries, used troops to mitigate rebellions in neighboring areas
liberal people
generally middle class bourgeois(business owners, bankers, lawyers, etc.)
Liberal view on gov
favored a republican government over monarchy (limit monarch by constitution) wanted gov to protect basic rights
universal manhood suffrage
gives all adult men the right to vote (supported by liberals later in the century)
liberal economic views
supported laissez faire economics of Adam Smith and David Ricardo. free market seen as capitalist opportunity
nationalism
gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the goal of creating their own homeland
Early 1800s revolutionaries
rebellions erupted in the Balkan Peninsula (Lived under Ottoman rule and wanted to break free)
Karageorge
The Serb leader that conducted one of the first revolts in the 1800s spurred by nationalism
Serbian revolt (1st time) 1804-1813
Struggle was unsuccessful (fostered sense of Serbian identity) revival of literature and culture aided nationalism
Miles Obrenovic
Led Serbs in a second more successful rebellion (asked Russia for help)
Serbian revolt (2nd time) 1815-1830
A more successful rebellion than the last one (piloted by Miles Obrenovic). Russian support was key to winning
autonomy
a state of self rule (generally about a state or territory from a country)
Russian role in Balkan rebellions
Russians supported the Serbs and defended Serbian interests and other events in teh Balkans
Greek revolution 1821
Years of suffering and long wars shaped national identity. Romantic writers aided the fight.
European southern fringe
Several territories aid the Greeks in gaining independence from the Ottomans but instated a German king (wrong intentions)
Metternich's view on rebellions
Urged conservative rulers to crush rebellions and suppress revolts.
Social reformers and agitators
pushed socialist ideals and property ownership in the mid 1800s
Charter of French Liberties
Two-house legislature that allowed freedom of press
Charles X
inheritor of the french throne. believed in absolutism. took away freedom of press, legislature, and limited right to vote
radicals views on Charles X
radicals were enraged by Charles' actions. attacks conducted on soldiers in streets and retook Paris
Louis Phillipe
after the tyrannical rule of Charles X, he was instated as King (constitutional monarchy) nicknamed the citizen king
Louis Phillipe Gov and Times
Upper bourgeoisie prospered and suffrage extended to wealthy citizens
Belgians in 1830
Belgians were forced to be united under the Dutch king. they didn't like this. different languages, religious views, economic structure
Belgian revolt
rebolt by students and workers. Supported by Britain and France. won rebellion and gained independance
Polish revolts
Not successful and most of power was handed to Russia
French revolt again 1848 (how many times goddamn)
Louis Philippe's actions caused a recession. Streets were blocked by common objects in "February Days". King abdicated and Second Republic take control.
recession
a period of reduced economic activity
working class loses out 1848
national workshops shut down, another rebellion shutdown, middle class distrusted socialists, working class hated bourgeoisie
Second Republic
1 strong president and 1 house legislature. votes to all adult men
Louis Napoleon
Nephew of OG Napoleon. said he cared about social issues ex. poverty. Self proclaimed emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III government...
used plebiscite to win public approval. majority supported Second Empire. prosperity and contentment increase
Napoleon III adventures
conducted foreign adventures that brought down empire ending french leadership
Austrian empire revolts
major cities had revolts. books smuggled and propaganda spread.
Louis Kossuth
journalist that led Hungarian revolts in Budapest
Italian/ Hapsburg domination revolts
revolts and expulsion of pope. french restore pope later
German revolts
Even more student revolts. King heeded to constitutions/assemblies for only 1year.
Frankfurt Assembly
proposed offer to king to have crown of united Germany. rejected by king
end of revolutionary time period
1850. military power and removed constitutions led to dissolution of most rebellions
Franco-Prussian War
ended a long period of French domination of Europe. third republic rose from ashes.
Ferdinand de Lesseps
organized teh building of the Suez canal in Egypt to link Mediterranean with Indian ocean and red sea
Maximilian
an Austrian Hapsburg Prince that sat on the Mexican throne. Napoleon wanted to turn it into a French sattelite
Maximilian in Mexico
Mexican patriots killed him and secured their land back.
Otto von Bismarck
the Prussian leader that manipulated the French and went to war in 1870 with them
After Napoleon's capture
provisional government setup that evolved into Third Republic
provisional government
a temporary government that shortly evolves or changes
Alsace and Lorraine
French provinces that were lost to Germany
Paris Commune
rejected harsh peace that was signed with Germany. was dissolved by National Assembly after forceful intervention
Third Republic structure
2 house legislature. Chamber of Deputies and Senate. president was a figurehead. premier had most power
premier
prime minister
coalitions
alliances of various parties
Political Scandalse
Due ot the weak nature of the coalition based government parties Georges Boulanger, president's nephew, etc. scandals
Alfred Dreyfus
High ranking army officer accused for spying for Germany. Anti-semitism provoked this accusation
Anti-semitism
the intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people
Dreyfus affair
scarred French politics and society for decades. Dreyfus supporters oppressed and accused
Emile Zola
convicted of libel due to charging army/gov with suppression of truth
libel
the knowing publication of false and damaging statements
Theodor Herzl
Called for jews to form separate state with rights
Zionism
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. Herzl helped
French followed suit with Germany
church schools shut down, no special treatment based on religion
women's rights in late 1800s early 1900s
people like Jeanne-Elizabeth Schmahl founded French Union for Women's Suffrage. Men didn't agree since they were against women's ideals on church etc.