World War 2 Flashcards

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* Strategy was defeating Germany 1st * Met with allies "The Big Three" during the war at conferences like Casablanca, Cairo, Tehran, and Yalta * Signed Executive Order 9066 which authorized internment of 110,000 "Issei" and "Nisei" (2nd Gen. Japanese Americans) * Said US would be an "Arsenal of Democracy" - Died April 12, 1945
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Harry S. Truman
* Ordered Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 - 33rd President (1945-1953 - 3rd Vice President to serve with FDR - Took office after FDR death - Though new to office, he led America and presided of VE Day and VJ Day
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Admiral Chester Nimitz
* Turned around US's fortune in Battle of Midway * Kamikaze attacks off Okinawa led him to resist plans to invade mainland Japan - After Pearl Harbor, he took command of US Navy in Pacific - Closed war with operations in the Leyte Gulf and Okinawa
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General Douglas MacArthur
* He promised "I shall return" after being ordered by FDR to abandon the Philippines * His strategy of maneuver, island hopping, result in fewer casualties under his command - Returned to the Philippines in 1945 - Presided over Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay on Sept. 2, 1945
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Dori Miller
* The 1st black person to be awarded the Navy Cross - Mess attendant assigned to USS West Virginia - Hero of the pearl harbor attack - His bravery as heavily publicized in black press making him an emblem of the war for blacks - Killed in 1943 when the Japanese sank his ship
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Henry Kaiser
* Nicknamed "Sir Launchalot" because his shipyard could build an entire ship in 14 days * American Industrialist that became known as the Father of modern American Shipbuilding - Established Kaiser Shipyards on West Coast which built liberty ships to transport supplies and equipment for war
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Audie Murphy
* Most decorated American soldier in WW2 * Received Congressional Medal of Honor * His story is basis of the film "To Hell and Back" - Enlisted at 17 - Received battlefield promotions
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General Dwight Eisenhower
* Commander of SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters American Expeditionary Forces) - Led operation torch (an invasion of North Africa) - Picked by FDR to head liberation of Europe on Eastern front
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Jacqueline Cochran
* Contributor to formation Women Airforce Service Pilots * Aviator - Supervised training of hundreds of women who flew planes from the factories to frontlines - Holds more records than any other pilot dead or alive
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Virginia Hall
* Spy for OSS (Office of Strategic Services) * Nicknamed Artemis * Reported as "the most dangerous of all Allied spies" by the Gestapo (German Secret Police) - Forerunner of Central Intelligence Agency - Smuggled into France before D-Day to organize resistance fighters - Awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism
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Oveta Culp Hobby
* Director of the WACs (Women's Army Corps) which was created to fill the gaps due to shortage of men * WACs were the 1st women other than nurses to be in Army uniform - Achieved rank of colonel - First women in the Army to receive Distinguished Service Medal
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Veronica Lake
* Publicly restyled her "peek-a-boo" hairstyle because she feared that the thousands of women copying her hair were endangering themselves * Accident rates for women fell 22% after her heroic haircut - Movie Star - Endured a famous haircut for patriotism - Her movie career never really recovered
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Charles Lindbergh
* Leader in anti-war America First movement - FDR refused to reinstate his Army Air Corps commission that he had resigned in April 1941 - After Pearl Harbor, he flew 50 combat missions in Pacific as a civilian advisor to Air Force
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Robert Oppenheimer
* He served as director of the Los Alamos Laboratory during the development of atomic bomb "the Manhattan Project" - Physicist - Angered by use of 2nd atomic bomb on Nagasaki - Said "I am become death, the destroyer of worlds." after testing the a-bomb
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Anthony McAuliffe
* Acting division commander of 101st Airborne Division (Screaming Eagles) * Defended Bastogne, Belgium during the Battle of the Bulge - Famous for saying "Nuts" in response to German Surrender Ultimatum
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A. Philip Randolph
* Led March on Washington, convincing FDR to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in defense industries during WW2 - Led 1st predominantly black labor union
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General Mark Clark
* Commander of US 5th Army in Italy * Ordered destruction of religious abbey at Monte Cassino - Captured Rome on June 5, 1944 - Critics argued that his tactics led to high casualties
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General George C. Marshall
* Army Chief of Staff - Commander of US army during WW2 - Chief Military adviser of FDR - Led the rapid growth of US forces , coordinated the Allies, and promoted post war reconstruction of Europe
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Henry Stimson
* Secretary of War to FDR (1940-1945) - Led charge calling for war on Germany - Oversaw the training 13 million soldiers/aviators - Supervised spending of 1/3 of nations GDP on Army and Air Forces - Took personal control of construction and use of atomic bomb
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Fred Korematsu
* December 1944, Supreme Court ruled 6-3 in Korematsu vs US that exclusion order was justifiable in times of "Emergency and Peril" - Challenged internship of Japanese-Americans - Japanese-Americans were imprisoned without right to a trial
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General Curtis LeMay
* Oversaw B-29 raids on Japan (US Army Air Corps) * Ordered bombers to strike at night using incendiary bombs * Firebombing Japanese cities created firestorms - High altitude bombing proved ineffective over Japan - March-August 1945, the raids killed around 330,000 Japanese
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General George S. Patton
* Commander of US 3rd Army "Old Blood and Guts" * Organized a relief operation to counter attack German Wehrmacht at the Battle of the Bulge - Aggressive General who was nearly fired for slapping a soldier for cowardice - Adopted German tactic of armored blitzkrieg - One of the most effective combat commanders of WW2
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General Holland Smith
* "Father" of modern US amphibious warfare * Led invasion of Iwo Jima - "Howlin' Mad" - Trained military in ship to shore warfare (major factor in successful US landings in Europe and Pacific
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Jimmy Doolittle
* The Doolittle Raid: Viewed as a major-morale building victory for US in opening months of Pacific War - Led top-secret attack on Tokyo by 16 B-25 bombers from aircraft carrier USS Hornet