Honors World History Midterm
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5 Themes of Geography
Location, Human, Region, Place, and Movement
Absolute: Definite reference for locating a place Relative: Describes through its connection to other places or environment
How humans adapt to the environment
Area with common features
Physical characteristics of a location
The travel of ideas, goods, resources, etc.
Imaginary line around the middle of the latitude lines on Earth
x-axis of Earth; Runs east to west
y-axis of Earth; Runs north to south
Imaginary line around the middle of the longitude lines on Earth
Divided areas by the equator and prime meridian (North and South) (East and West)
Types of Maps
Political, Physical, Climate, Economic, Topographic, and Road
Shows the territorial boundaries of countries, states, and other administrative divisions
Graphical representation of physical landmarks
Shows the geographic distribution of climates through zones.
Regions architecture, manufacturing, etc.
Detailed drawing of acurate features to the area
Map for drivers showing roads of an area
Anno Domini (Year of the Lord)
A period of 10 years
A period of 100 years
A period of 1000 years
A period of 100,000,000 year
Small Communities in Afro-Eurasia
Governed by elders related by ancestry
Chieftancy in Afro-Eurasia
In which an individual has the power to make decisions over a community
Kingdoms in Afro-Eurasia
Highly established bureaucracy that is generally tied to religion
City States in Afro-Eurasia
Focused on trade; often ruled by merchants
Alliances of several states
Core community with state conquering power; Rules over others
Makes laws, dispenses justice, claims control of territories, and collects resources
Where did the largest of Afro-Eurasian states stretch?
Along the fertile belt of land
What was the heart of Afro-Eurasian States?
The Islamic World
What was the first migration to the Caribbean islands?
What year were the Caribbean islands first settled?
Where did the people migrate from to the Caribbean islands in 5000BCE?
The mainland in Central America
How did belief systems change from early migrations to later migrations?
During early migrations belief systems were very similar and had little diversity. During later migrations belief systems changed to diverse, ancestral beliefs that were full of idols and traditions
What was traded between the Caribbean islands in the Pre-Colonial Caribbean?
Jade, Ceramics, Teeth, Shells, etc.
What happened to the natives of the Caribbean when Spain took over?
They were used as guides, translators, and slaves
What was the encomienda system?
It was a spanish legal system that allowed colonizers to control the indigenous labor force
How did the indigenous people resist spanish control?
By migrating and moving location
What effect did colonial interaction have on the world?
It connected continents and exchanged resources and diseases
What five nations made up the Haudenosaunee?
Seneca, Cayuga, Onodaga, Onedia, and Mohauk
What type of community was the Haudenosaunee?
They were a confederacy
What held up all five nations that made up the Haudenosaunee?
They were held up by a matriarchal hierarchy with a mens council
What did the Aztecs believe in?
They belived in crops, weapons, and the quetzacoatl
Where did the Aztecs settle?
In what year did the Aztecs build Tenochtitlan?
Why did the Aztecs build pyramids?
For human sacrifice
Why did the Aztecs sacrifice people?
The 52 year cycle; was the belief that human sacrifice would stop the apocolypse
What type of empire were the Aztecs?
Polytheistic Tribute Empire
Where did the Mayans settle?
What belief did the Aztecs and Maya have in common?
The belief in the quetzacoatl
What things were the Mayans make?
They made mesoamerican style pyramids, ball courts, etc.
Who did the Mayans trade with?
How did the Mayan empire end?
It was left abandoned
What year was the Mayan empire left abandoned?
What empire was the most successful in the Americas?
Who ruled the Inca empire?
How did the Inca empire expand?
Through military power
What did the Inca empire trade?
Cotton, potatoes, maize, alpacas, pottery, wool, tapestries, etc.
What other successful empire did the Inca empire surpass technologically?
The Roman Empire
What Inca festival celebrated the sun?
Where were the Aztec, Inca, and Mayan empires?
What are chieftancies, confederations, and empires all examples of?
What major political development did the Haudenosaunee make?
The coming together of five nations in North America, forming a confederation
Mislims, Buddhists, and Hindus were all present in South Asian populations? How would those populations be described?
What was the main reason for the Aztecs wanting to expand and conquer new places?
The fear of an apocalypse, and the belief that it could be prevented by providing humans and food as sacrifice
According to the Qur'an and the teachings of the prophet Muhammad, Islam is a continuation of which two religions?
Judaism and Christianity
Which belief systems were primarily associated with China int eh thirteenth century?
Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism
What region in the Americas had numerous networks connecting communities that were spread accoss 7,000 islands?
What was the Mongol policy about religious freedom?
The Mongols were tolerant of different religions
How did the Aztec empire form?
Several independent city states in the region came together through alliance and conquest
What is a tributary empire?
An empire where surrounding states pay tribute to the empire to maintain their alliance
What were the most important sources of Islamic history for Muslims?
The Qur'an and The Hadith
What paved the way for Indian Ocean routes of exchange?
What cause expanded exchange in the Indian Ocean?
The spread of Islam, demand for specialized products, advances in maritime technology, etc.
What specialized products did India produce?
Cotton, fabric, rugs, etc.
What specialized products did Malaysia produce?
Spices (nutmeg, cloves,etc.)
What specialized products did Swahili produce?
What specialized products did China produce?
Silk and procelain
Where did the enslaved people from East Africa go?
North Africa, the Middle East, and Madagascar
Where did the enslaved people from West Africa go?
What do you need to know about weather when traveling the Indian Ocean?
Monsoon wind patterns
What is a lateen?
What is a stern/rudder used for?
What is an astrolabe used for?
To find your distance from the equator
What helped with the growth of states?
Trade, application of revenue, and using taxes to maintain trading posts
What did merchants need to do to expand trade?
What was a way that Islam spread?
What did the Muslim merchant community produce?
Silk, paper, porcelain, etc.
What did the Chinese merchant community produce?
Cotton, tea, silk, opium, etc.
What did the Sogdian merchant community produce?
Silk, gold, wine, etc.
What did the Jewish merchant community produce?
Glass beads, dyes, spices, etc.
What did the Malay merchant community produce?
Nutmeg, pepper, etc.
How did communities respond to increased demand?
Finding now ways to make products more efficiently and increase of the government's role in trade.
What significant cultural transfers were made?
The transfer of knowledge, culture, technology, commerce, and religion.
When was Oceania first inhabited?
40,000 years ago
How was Oceania pioneered?
How was Australia's environment?
What did the bad environment in Australia cause people to not be able to do?
You couldn't domesticate animals or plants
Where did most of the first inhibitors of Oceania originally come from?
Southeast Asia and Taiwan
What three groups made up Oceania?
Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia
What were some key factors of Melanesia?
Densely populated, closely packed islands, and took up from New Guinea to Fiji
What were some key factors of Micronesia?
North of Melanesia and made up of spread out island chains
What were some key factors of Polynesia?
Made up of voyagers, far-flung islands, and it's population grew gradually
What interconnected Oceania?
Where was the most populated area of Oceania?
Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea
What society developed the rules and behavioral standards in Oceania?
What gender could be kings and establish political hierarchies in Aboriginal society?
What was "The Dreaming"?
An Aboriginal way of seeing the history of the past, present, future, and the universe.
When was Hawaii settled?
Who settled in Hawaii?
What language was used in Hawaii?
Trick question! They didn't have a written language
What did Hawaiian stories tell about?
The founding of the islands, farming, and ship building
Where did women have more authority and freedom? In Aboriginal society or in Hawaii?
Hawaii! There, women had authority and freedom rather in other places in Oceania the relationship between men and women was simple complimentary
What was the Samoan third gender?
What was the Fa'afaire?
They were male bodied people who preformed feminine tasks such as caring for the elderly and children
Who was the Inca ruler in 1438CE?
What did the Inca called themselves?
What does Inca mean?
What did Inca contribute to the global tapestry as an empire?
Architecture, road networks, textiles, etc.
How many people lived in the Inca empire prior to it's decline?
What was the Mit'a system?
A human labor system used as a form of taxation to benefit the government
Who was Kupe?
Skilled navigator who was seen as the first to travel to New Zealand
What trading system was the biggest in the world during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries?
What products did the Afro-Eurasian trading system depend on?
Silk from China, Spices from South East Asia, gold, coppen, ivory, fur, honey, wax, glass, wine, and fruits
What BESIDES PRODUCTS were exchanged through Afro-Eurasian trading networks?
Knowledge and technology
What did Afro-Eurasian trade routes rely on?
Markets and urban areas
What trade route connected the Persian Gulf, Asia's Northern Passage, the China Sea, South East Asia, the Arabian Sea, North Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and Western Europe?
The Silk Road
What unified the Persian Gulf Region?
The rise of Islam
Who ruled the Persian Gulf Region?
What was at the heart of the Persian Gulf Region?
What was Baghdad called?
The house of wisdom
In what year did the Mongols attack Baghdad?
BESIDES KNOWLEDGE what was Baghdad known for?
Tiles and Rugs
What was North of Baghdad?
Central Asia's North Passage
What connects the Persian Gulf Region and Central Asia's North Passage?
What did Central Asia's North Passage cover?
From China to the Black Sea
Who governed Central Asia's North Passage's roads?
The independent kingdoms they passed through
When did Chinggis Khan conquer Central Asia?
The thirteenth century
Who conquered Central Asia?
How did Europeans get Chinese technology?
Central Asia's North Passage's trade routes
What were the Mongols known for?
Who did Chinggis Khan protect?
Scholars, artisans, and administators
What was the key to Afro-Eurasian trade routes?
The China Sea
What did the The China Sea dominate?
Silk and spices
Who wanted access to The China Sea's markets?
When did the Yuan dynasty start?
Where did the Yuan dynasty move the capitol to?
From Mongolia to Beijing
What was the Yuan dynasty known for?
Silk and porcelain
What did India and South East Asia maintain?
The flow of spices
What bridged the China Sea and the Indian Ocean?
India and South East Asia
What did India and South East Asia value?
Who did the Arabian Sea and East Africa trade with?
The Red Sea, East Africa, and the Persian Gulf
What was the most important entrepôt in Afro-Eurasia?
How were the Indian and South East Asian harbors protected?
Where was North African economy centered around?
Alexandria and Cairo
What were North Africa's major exports?
Gold, enslaved people, and iron
What was the major rivalry of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea?
Genova VS Venice
What place was in the middle of Asia and Europe?
What were some of the major exports of Istanbul/Constantinople?
Brocade, cloth, silk, and gold
What did Istanbul trade with the Mongols?
Where were the enslaved people exported out of Istanbul/Constantinople from?
Russia and Ukraine
Who supposedly threatened the Christendom?
What did the Pope launch to "Make the world Christian"?
What did the pope's failed crusade cause?
The opening of limited trade with the Muslim world
What was the major export of Western Europe?
Wool and textiles
What stopped trade between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries?
The emergence of the Black Death
What spread the Black Death?
Global connectivity through trade and people living in close quarters
How much of the world was killed due to the Black Death?
What happened in after the end of the Black Death?
The rebirth of Afro-Eurasian trading systems
Who created the new Afro-Eurasian trading system?
During what dynasty was silk majorly produced?
The Song Dynasty
What was the Song dynasty's economy built on?
Strong state involvment
What was silk used for during the Song dynasty?
Currency, clothing, and tapestries
What did the Mongols herd?
Sheep and goats
In Mongol society who was able to be a skilled hunter and horserider?
Men and Women
Who created the Mongolian tribal alliances?
What did Genghis Khan focus on?
Power and Personal Loyalty
How many years did it take Genghis Khan to conquer from the China Sea to Persia?
What did Genghis Khan do at the beginning of his conquests?
Wiped out entire civilizations and captured every empire in sight
How did Genghis Khan excel at fighting in wars?
Strategically mapping the attacks
What was Genghis Khan's style of fighting?
What did Genghis Khan do to help the Mongols beat their enemies at their own game?
He quickly brought in the weapons and innovations of their enemies to the battlefield.
When Genghis Khan was at peace who ruled alongside him?
Engineers and scholars
Why did Genghis Khan allow engineers and scholars to help him rule?
To build the government through Chinese and Islamic tradition
How was the Mongol empire accommodating to new communities that they conquered?
They were religiously tolerant
Why was the Mongol empire religiously tolerant?
To ensure that there wouldn't be an uprising
What empire's soldiers defended the Silk Road?
The Mongol Empire
What did Batu and the Golden Hoard do first?
Marched 100,000 soldiers into Russia
What places did Batu and the Golden Hoard conquer.
Russia and Ukraine
What knights did Batu and the Golden Hoard defeat?
Polish, German, French, and Hungarian knights
What mistake did Batu and the Golden Hoard make with Russia?
Allowed Russia to govern itself
What did this mistake allow Russia to do?
Defeat Batu and the Golden Hoard
What did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland do to the heart of the Persian Gulf Region?
They destroyed Baghdad
What alliances did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland make?
Why did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland make these alliances?
To resist Mongol rule
What religious did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland convert to?
What Mongol rule did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland end?
Who did Hulego and the Islamic Heartland massacre?
Jews and Christians
How many years did it take Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty to defeat China?
What practices were used by Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty?
Who brought back religious tolerance after Hulego and the Islamic Heartland took it away?
Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty
What was Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty known for?
Innovation, commerce, and prosperity
What right was granted to women during Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty's reign?
The power to initiate divorce and marrige
What jobs did women have during Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty's reign?
Cooking, herding sheep, and raising children
When did the Mongols lose their power and eventually get defeated?
When they alienated Chinese people and separated from China
What group took down the Mongols?
The White Lotus
What was the dynasty that resulted from the fall of the Mongol empire?
The Ming Dynasty
What empire did the M