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Module 3 and 4 Terms

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72 Terms
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indo-european
a group of nomadic people who have come from dry grasslands that stretched North of the Caucasus.
migration
movements of a people from one region to another; Indo-Europeans _____ outward in all directions between 1700 BC - 1200 BC
Hitties
Indo-European speakers that occupied Anatolia
Anatolia
Asia Minor; huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that juts out into the Black and Mediterranean Seas
Asia Minor
Anatolia
Aryans
Indo-Europeans, homeland was between the Caspian and Aral Seas, crossed over NW mountain passes into the Indus River Valley
Vedas
sacred literature that left a picture of Aryan life; four collections of prayers, hymns, and instructions for performing rituals ---> most important was Rig Veda
caste
social status or position conferred by a system based on class; jatis
Brahmins
the highest ranking member on the Brahma
Brahmins - mouth - priests and teachers Kshatriyas - arms - warriors and rulers Vaishyas - legs - traders, farmers, and herders Shudras - feet - laborers and peasants
What was the caste system and where were they on Purusha/Brahma?
Bhagavad Gita
part of the Mahabharata; tells the story of a warrior prince named Arjuna, who is counseled by his chariot driver, Krishna, an incarnation of the Hindu deity Vishnu.
Mahabharata
a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India; two Aryan kinds fought for control of Indian lands
Hinduism
collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time
Upanishads
written as a dialogue or discussion, between a student and a teacher. They describe how they can reach moksha. The teacher distinguishes between atman, the individual living soul of a living being, the Brahman, the world soul that contains and unites all atmans
karma
the effects of a person's actions (good or bad) that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
varna
caste systems of India
untouchables
were not apart of caste system; not considered humans, treated with disrespect; butchers and trash collectors
Dharma
the teachings of Buddha and the basic principles of cosmic or individual existence; an individual's duty fulfilled by observance of custom or law
Ahimsa
a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence
Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha; was born in a noble family that lived in Nepal
enlightenment
if one achieves a state of __________, it is possible to escape this cycle forever
nirvana
Buddha's word for release from selfishness and pain
Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama; one who has achieved a state of perfect enlightenment by meditating under a fig tree for 49 days
First - life is filled with suffering and sorrow Second - the cause of all suffering is people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world Third - the way to end all suffering is to end all desires Fourth - the way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self denail
the four noble truths are:
The Middle Way
the Eightfold path; between desires and self denial
three jewels
the Buddha (the exemplar), the dharma (the teachings), and the sangha (the community of practitioners)
stupas
dirt burial mound faced with stone
Theravada
school of Buddhism believes that it has remained closest to the original teachings of the Buddha
Mahayana
the right path of a follower will lead to the redemption of all human beings
Zen Buddhism
______ meditation is mainly about following the breath as well as emptying the mind
Tibetan Buddhism
_________ meditation often includes things like mantras and visualizations and concentrating on really complex thoughts
Minoans
powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean; lived on Crete and near the Aegean Sea, produced the finest pottery
Aegean Sea
on the southern edge of the island Crete
Knossos
Minoan capital city
Phoenicians
most powerful traders along the Mediterranean; remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers, first Med people to go beyond the Strait of Gibraltar
Carthage
greatest Phoenician colony was at _____
shekel
unit of money in Israel
phonetic alphabet
way to record transactions clearly and quickly, symbols represent sounds, introduced the ______ to many trading partners such as Greece
Canaan
an ancient region between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean, corresponding roughly to Israel; promised by God and led there by Abraham
Torah
Hebrew Bible; the whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tradition
Abraham
a shepherd who lived in the city of Ur; chosen by God to be the "father" of Jewish people, God promised this man protection over himself and his Jewish descendants (covenant)
covenant
God promised Abraham protection towards himself and his Jewish descendants
ten commandments
code of laws delivered by Moses included rules by regulating social and religious behavior; to Jews, it meant paying restitution and emphasizing gods mercy
Israel
New Kingdom; Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine
Judah
The kingdom was divided into two, Israel and ____. When Israel was destroyed this kingdom, _____, remained. How Israelites got their name, Jews, and their religion, Judaism.
Talmud
the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism
Saul
the first king of the Israelites who drove out the Philistines from Central hills, portrayed as a tragic man who was given bout to jealousy
David
the second king of the Israelites. An extremely popular leader who united the tribes, established Jerusalem, and founded a dynasty
Solomon
The third king of the Israelites; the most powerful, built a trading empire with the help of his friend Hiram. He also beautified the capital city of Jerusalem. Built a great temple to glorify God
Tyre
an alliance of ten nations that would conspire against God's people
Babylonian Captivity
the forced detention of Jews in Babylonia following the latter's conquest of the kingdom of Judah
King Nebuchadnezzar
a great Babylonian king who ran the Egyptians out of Syria and Judah attacked Jerusalem twice
monotheism
belief in a single God
Hyksos
Asiatic invaders that ruled Egypt
New Kingdom
The strength of Egypt to become an empire; third period of glory
enslavement of the Israelites
they had become so numerous, the Pharaoh feared their presence. He feared that one day the Israelites would turn against the Egyptians and so he enslaved them
Hatshepsut
the female pharaoh who focused on trade instead of waging war
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa on the Nile
Hittites
Anatolian people; manufactured advanced iron goods, ruled over their kingdom through government officials with independent authority over various branches of government, and worshipped storm gods. The ________' ongoing conflicts with Egypt produced the world's first known peace treaty
Ramses II
pharaoh king who made a treaty promising "peace and brotherhood between us forever"
Valley of the Kings
Thebes; land that promised security in the afterlife and protection from gave robbers
Thebes
an ancient Egyptian city on the Nile River that flourished from the 22nd century BC to the 18th century BC
Karnak
religious significance, it was also served as a treasury, administrative center, and palace for the New Kingdom pharaohs
Kush
Nubia kingdom
Assyrians
brutal and violent empire; very strong and grew very big in their time of reign
Meroe
Kushite royal family moved her; lays close to the Red Sea, active in flourishing with Africa, Arabia, and India
Assyria
an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia
Sennacherib
king of Assyria who invaded Judea twice and defeated Babylon and rebuilt Nineveh after it had been destroyed by Babylonians
Nineveh
an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris across from the modern city of Mosul
Chaldeans
burned down and leveled Nineveh with the help of the Medes
King Nebuchadnezzar
Chaldean king; restored Babylon
Babylon
the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia