Chapter 9: Exam 2

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56 Terms
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an abnormal state in which the body is not performing normal functions
the study of disease
the cause of a disease
the development of disease
is the monitoring and controlling disease occurrence to promote public health
microorganism that creates a disease
invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens
infectious disease
is an illness caused by a pathogen
Helminths (parasitic worms)
hookworm, pinworm, trichinosis, schistosomiasis (eukaryotic multicellular animal)
Protozoan (animal-like protists)
Giardiasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis (eukaryotic unicellular parasites)
histoplasmosis, athlete's foot (tinea pedis)
prokaryotic unicellular; some are obligate intracellular parasites, which other are fee living; usually smaller than eukaryotic cells (streptococcal infections, staphylococcal infections, bacterial pneumonia, tetanus, chlamydia. tuberculosis, typhus, whooping cough (pertussis) plague
not cells; infectious particles containing nucleic acids ( DNA or RNA genome); usually smaller than prokaryotic cells (chickenpox, measles, AIDS, rabies, influenza, cold, polio, smallpox, herpes, hepatitis
infectious proteins (not cells); do not contain DNA or RNA; can cause certain proteins in host brain to fold incorrectly ( the human analog of "mad cow disease")
opportunistic pathogens
only cause disease when their host is weakened (e.g., weak immune system)
true pathogen
does not require a weakened host to cause disease (makes everyone sick)
sporadic cases
a disease are isolated infections in a particular population (ebola)
endemic infections
are routinely detected in population or region (head colds)
a widespread disease outbreak in a particular region during a specific time frame
occurs if an epidemic spreads to numerous countries
emerging pathogens
included newly identified agents as well as pathogens that previously caused only sporadic cases (COVID-19, Zika)
reemerging pathogen
an infectious agent that was under control but is now surfacing (antibiotic resistance bacteria)
Zoonotic diseases
spread from animals to humans- (many are noncommunicable)
communicable diseases
transmit from human to human
contagious diseases
easily transmitted from one host to the next
objective indicators of disease that can be measured or verified (fever, rash or blood in stool)
are sensed by the patients and are subjective rather than precisely measurable (pain, fatigue, and nausea)
latent infection
usually asymptomatic ( no signs or symptoms)
Acute disease
have a rapid onset and progression
chronic disease
slower onset and progression
are an animate or inanimate habitat where the pathogen is naturally found
disseminate infectious agent from the reservoir to new hosts
endogenous source
the pathogen came from the host's own body
exogenous source
the pathogen is external to the host; (environmental- contaminated food, animals-transmit zoonotic disease to people, humans-transmit communicable infections from one person to another)
misplaced normal microbiota
bacteria living harmlessly on the skin can enter surgical incisions to cause postoperative infections
disrupted microbiota and opportunistic pathogens
yeast in the vagina may proliferate and cause infection after antibiotics kill off bacterial neighbors
modes of transmission
how the pathogen spreads to a host
direct contact transmission
between source of pathogen and host
indirect contact transmission
no direct contact between the source of pathogen and host
vertical transmission (direct)
occurs when the pathogen passes from mother to offspring during; pregnancy, delivery, breast feeding
airborne transmission (indirect)
the pathogen enters through the respiratory route; usually occurs by inhaling pathogen-laden respiratory droplets
vehicle transmission (indirect)
pathogen is found on contaminated fomite (doorknobs, needles, sheets, food)
vector transmission (indirect)
transmission by vectors (arthropods)
biological vector (indirect)
vector organism has a role in the pathogens life cycle (ticks, mosquitos)
mechanical vector (indirect)
vector spreads disease without being integral to the pathogen's life cycle (flies, rodent, and cockroaches)
describes how good an infectious agent is at establishing an infection
describes severity of disease following infection
the general ability of an infectious agent to cause disease
infectious agent
how many/much of a pathogen have to be in contact with something to become sick
what are the five general stages of disease that occurs during infection?
1. incubation period 2. prodromal period 3. acute phase 4. period of decline 5. convalescent phase
incubation period
the period between infection and the development of the earliest symptoms
prodromal phase
early symptoms develop- start to feel run down and may have mild symptoms
acute phase
the peak of the disease; full-blown classical symptoms of the disease; known as a symptomatic case ( or a clinical infection)
asymptomatic case (subclinical case)
symptoms are mild or nonexistent; prodromal and acute phase go unnoticed
period of decline
pathogen replication decreases; patient begins to feel better
convalescent period
elimination of the pathogen from the body