AP Psych Bio Unit Complete

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Humans are what kind of system?
nerve cells that are the basic blocks of the nervous system
cell body
the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus; the cell's life-support center
bushy extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses towards the body. They are "branching fibers"
extension of the neuron which carries, via an action potential, information that will be sent on to other neurons, muscles or glands
What does a neuron look like?
shown in this picture
Depending on where it needs to stretch, the axon can vary in...
some axons are encased in a...
myelin sheath
myelin sheath
a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed
What can occur if the myelin sheath degenerates?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), in which we have slowed communication leading to eventual loss of muscle control
Glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. It moves very slowly and can be stimulated by senses or neighboring neurons
The axon's surface is...
selectively permeable, meaning it is selective about what is allowed through its gates.
What happens when a neuron fires?
Depolarization occurs; channels in the axon's surface open up and positive and negative ions more in and out of the neuron.
Two types of neural signals
excitatory and inhibitory
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
What happens if excitatory signals exceed inhibitory signals by a certain threshold?
an action potential will be triggered
refractory period
a period where subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state
all-or-none response
a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Synaptic Gap
space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons, across the synapse and binding to receptor sites on the receiving neuron
when excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron
opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure. Opiate drugs can suppress its supply
a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action
a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (made up of neurons communicating with neurotransmitters to make decisions)
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
sensory neurons
neurons that carry information from tissue and sensory receptors to the CNS
motor neurons
neurons that carry information from the CNS to muscles/glands
neurons within the CNS that communicate internally and process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs
Two parts of the PNS
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
controls glands and muscles of internal organs
two parts of the ANS
sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
arouses the body, mobilizing its energy
parasympathetic nervous system
calms the body, conserving its energy
the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems work together to maintain...
simple, automatic responses to sensory stimuli, such as the knee-jerk response
what would happen if the top of your spinal cord were to be severed?
you'd be paralyzed from the waist down
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
What hormones do the adrenal gland normally produce?
ephinephrine and norepinephrine
What do adrenaline and noradrenaline do?
Increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar. and helps trigger flight-or-fight response
pituitary gland
regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. It also releases hormones that stimulate physical development and oxytocin, which enables contractions in females and stimulates social trust
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
using light to control a limited population of neurons
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
measures magnetic fields from the brain's natural electrical activity
CT Scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
PET Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Sits above medulla and helps coordinate movement
the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
reticular formation
a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
limbic system
contains amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus.
a neural system below the cerebral hemispheres associated with drives and emotions
Limbic system
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
reward deficiency syndrome
people crave whatever relieves negative feelings
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Parletal Lobe
lay at the top rear of the head and receive sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
somatosensory cortex
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
the formation of new neurons
Corpus Callosum
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Split Brain(s)
A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
Our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Cognitive Neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition, including perception, thinking, memory, and language.
Dual Processing
The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.
Parallel Processing
Processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions
Sequential Processing
Processing one aspect of a problem at a time; generally used to process new information or to solve difficult problems.
Behavior Genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
The genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and the things around us.
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins.
The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
Identical (monozygotic) twins
Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
Fraternal (dizygotic) Twins
Develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than ordinary brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
Molecular Genetics
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Molecular Behavior Genetics
The study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior.
"Above" or "in addition to" (epi) genetics; the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of behavior of the mind, using principles of natural selection.
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
Social Script
A culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
Paul Broca
Discovered area in the brain (named for him) in the left frontal lobe responsible for language production
Carl Wernicke
Discovered an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it
Roger Sperry
Studied split-brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
Michael Gazzaniga
Split-brain research; understanding of functional lateralization in the brain; how the cerebral hemispheres communicate
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and set forth his theory of evolution.
Contracting pupils would be caused by the ______ ______ _____
Parasympathetic nervous system
An accelerated heartbeat is caused by the ______ _____ _____
Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic system ______ digestion, while the parasympathetic _____ digestion.
Inhibits, stimulates
The sympathetic nervous system ______ the body, ______ it's energy.
Arouses, mobilizing
The parasympathetic nervous system ____ the body, _____ it's energy.
Calms, conserving
The CNS is made up of the _____ and ____ ____
Brain, spinal cord
The PNS is made up of ______ and _____ ___-
Sensory and motor neurons
What are the two parts of the PNS?
Somatic and autonomic
The somatic nervous system controls the body's ____ _____
Skeletal muscles
The autonomic nervous system controls the ____ and the muslces of _____ ______
Glands and muscles of internal organs
The autonomic nervous system operates _____
Automatically/ without conscious effort
Fight, Flight, or Freeze is in reference to the ____ ____ ____
Sympathetic Nervous System
Rest or Digest is in reference to the ________ ____ ___
Parasympathetic nervous system
The recovery period when a person's body goes through its recovery sleep stages.
Circadian rhythm
Our biological clock, regular body rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
REM sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams occur. Paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active.
Alpha waves
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
NREM sleep
Non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages EXCEPT for REM sleep (NREM-1, 2, and 3)
The stage of sleep where dreams may spontaneously begin, and muscles may move in a jerky motion. This stage only lasts about 5-10 minutes.
The stage of sleep where your brain waves slow down even more, and little wave clusters called sleep spindles commonly occur. You will spend about 1/2 of your sleep in this stage. You will revisit this stage often.
Slow-wave sleep/DELTA SLEEP. Brainwave cycles are less than 1 cycle per second. Deep sleep.
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Hypnagogic sensations
Bizarre experiences, such as jerking or a feeling of falling or floating weightlessly, while transitioning to sleep.
Delta waves
The large, slow brain waves associated with the deep sleep of NREM-3
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. Modifies our feelings of sleepiness in response to light.
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
A sleep disorder characterized by uncomfortable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
Night terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
Manifest content
According to Freud, the symbolic and remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent/hidden content.)
Sigmund Freud
The father of psychoanalytics, which emphasizes the ways our unconscious mind and childhood experiences affect out behavior.
According to Freud, daughters are envious of their ____ and spend their lives trying to be more like them to get their opposite spouse.
According to Freud, sons are envious of their ____ and want a woman like their mother.
Latent content
According to Freud, the underlying meaning of dreams (as distinct from its manifest content)
REM rebound
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
Psychoactive drug
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.