SOC 111 Final

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63 Terms
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the accumulated store of symbols, ideas, and material products associated with a social system (material + non-material)
Traditional institutions
family, education, religion, government/law, economics - newer institutions: media and health
Cultural capital
- the ability to know what is high/low culture in a person's society, familiarity with and easy use of cultural forms institutionalized at the apex of a society's cultural hierarchy - refers to any knowledge, tastes or dispositions to help those get ahead - accumulation of knowledge, behaviors, and skills that person can tap into to demonstrate one's cultural competence and social status
_______ _______ developed cultural capital
Pierre Bourdieu developed the concept to explain how elites were able to transmit their status to their children
Examples of cultural capital
Household conversations, lessons, visits to museums, performing-arts events, degrees, and diplomas from higher education
Sociological imagination (CW Mills)
- links history to biography (personal troubles w/public issues), its never just about one individual - conflict theory, critical writing - personal troubles and public issues go hand in hand, imbedded in larger power structure
Emotional labor
emotional regulation which is done for money (flight attendant). kids don't know its not real which makes it even more of a burden (Princessing article)
Emotional work
done for personal or social reasons (eating dinner at a table with family you hate)
Dramaturgy (Goffman)
actively working to manage the impressions we give in order to match social expectations and self image. we can use props, teams, scripts
Props (Dramaturgy)
physical appearance or physical things used to modify one's appearance and/or role within a situation (such as a suit jacket or another person) - preparation
Teams (Dramaturgy)
people from a similar cultural background or within the same socialized groups - support system, friends, consultation
Scripts (Dramaturgy
the shared manner people interact with each other (largely determined by their cultural background) - ritual interaction, context is vital
Front stage
formal - the area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions
Back stage
more "yourself", less need to perform. area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior
Princessing article
- blurs any distinction that clearly separates on-stage from off-stage behavior - keeping up behavior and fairytale world expected of a princess (by children) - involves mastering Goffman's "impression management"
Nested analysis
considers an issue across many levels of analysis levels of analysis: self, family, community, nation state, and global - micro: self/family/small groups - meso: community/organizations - macro: large multi organizations/institutional/global
- large scale social structure designed to fulfill certain fundamental societal needs (prevent chaos, protection, replace lost members)
Material culture
the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
Non-material culture
The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people
Joyless economy
- people often turn to commodities for emotional reasons, gaining happiness from unnecessary objects - the more people believe in materialistic values, the more depressed they become - greatest challenge is to connect our desires to a truly human world instead of capitalism/consumerism
Conflict theory (Marx/Weber)
- society is in state of perpetual conflict bc of competition for limited resources - conflict is normal and shapes social life, class struggle/inequality - macro theory
Structural functionalism (Durkheim)
- a conceptual framework positing that each element of society serves a particular function to keep the entire system in equilibrium - stability is the norm, values and norms - macro theory
3 current kinds of stigma
- character traits: involve more traits that we see as characteristics such as dominance or even beliefs - physical stigma: includes physical deformities of the body - group identity: involves race, sex, religion
society's capacity of managing individuals to fall under societal rules
individuals' capacity to have the power and resources to fulfill their potential and exert power on society
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) in charge of low-interest, highly demanded housing loans provided to people in poverty, resulting in the redlining between poor and rich neighborhoods concerning factors such as safety, public health, and socio-financial status
Income vs. wealth
wealth is the value of capital owned while income is the amount made in a certain period
Power elite
certain economic, political, military figures can exert control over large segments of society
Routine politics
within the normally acknowledged political spirit (politicians who would listen to people's concerns)
Market politics
market engagement (boycott a company + explicitly inform the company about the reason why)
Contentious politics
standing on the street with fliers and earn revolution (when lack of political and market resources)
Biographical availability
does an individual have the time and resources to participate? - ex.) single person vs. single mother
Moral shocks
events or depictions of events that make people more able/willing to be recruited - ex.) 9/11, police violence
3 theories of social change
evolutionary, functionalist, conflict
Evolutionary theory (Comte)
all societies pass through a sequence of evolutionary stages
Functionalist (Durkheim)
the nature state of society is balance, and change is rare and indicates dysfunction, small adjustments are normal for which the major purpose is to maintain balance
Conflict (Marx)
people who are exploited resist to change the society, but changes are necessary to break the inequality
Number of federally recognized tribes
- the lawful use of fear and violence to alienate people and lands for power - involves physical violence, deficit framing, and marginalization - people enacting violence frame their norms as normal and native traditions as lesser/lacking, pushing the narrative that native issues are insignificant
- can show ancestry, not identity - tests are not useful for tribal membership
- displays race as biological, but also membership through kinship - minimum blood quantum (ex. 25% Navajo blood) required by 70% of the federally recognized tribes
Women's march vs. March for racial justice
- looks at how gender based discrimination relates to other forms of discrimination such as race, cultural diversity, or gender orientation - show that justice and equality can only be maintained if concerns of both racism and sexism are addressed
Hong Kong protests
caused by protesting of the Extradition Bill bc citizens believed its purpose was to provide a legal way for China to extradite protesters for trial * extradite = deport someone accused of a crime
Protest movements
- form of contentious collective action - sustained challenges to the status quo in the attempt to realize a vision shared by participants; vision holds the individuals together
- adherence to and valuing of accepted norms - dominant social order as it exists (or has existed in the recent past) is mostly positive
- broader advocacy for being critical of the status quo and open to changing it - prone to questioning social norms
* war of position - social group must already exercise leadership before winning gov. power * cultural hegemony - economic elites defend power by making their position seem like common sense * uniting working class + gaining power requires dislodging that “common sense” so people recognize that another world is possible
Adversary culture (Lionel Trilling)
* the emerging progressive tendency and desire to critique society's social/moral norms * this mindset rooted in art bc art liberates an individual from the tyranny of culture * art encourages people to take a step back from the society that surrounds them and critique it
argues that protests and changing the world involve changing the way people look at the world, made possible by social movements
New social movements
- triggered by concerns with quality of life, emerge in sphere of everyday life - concerns with personal identity rather than redistribution of wealth/power, making forms of action more symbolic than strategic
Fascism and social movements
* rather than seeking integration, fascist movements presented threat to established political institutions * social movements interpreted as form of collective behavior, understood on scale of rationality - irrationality of the crowd to more rational social movement
Social control
- intimately linked to issues of social order - how individuals, groups, and societies organize their lives together - covers ways in which people in power influence others decisions and options using punishment
Social bonds (Travis Hirschi)
* version of social control theory w 4 components: 1. *attachment* to significant conventional others 2. *involvement* in conventional activities 3. *belief* - respecting society's laws 4. *commitment* - having a stake in conformity
Punitive archipelago
* social control monitors and records all sorts of data that intrudes into our private lives * once discipline is dispersed from custody and allowed into hands of community, we're all drawn into the control enterprise * good deal of control removed from state oversight, privatized
* continuous disciplinary discourse in which power emanates as much from knowledge that shapes social relations as from the state/mode of production
Absolute poverty
lack of sufficient money to meet basic physical needs to subsist and survive
Relative poverty
poverty that involves human needs, not merely physical, but as socially and culturally constituted
Non-material poverty
- internal and social struggles such as lack of voice, power, or dignity - lack of money can cause power struggle and feelings of no control over situation - emphasizes agency of those more powerful, excludes the less powerful
Heaney research method
select protests scheduled on National Mall in D.C. in 2017 - make list of ten events and their characteristics - hire team of 10 surveys to conduct surveys at each event and distribute them around perimeter - instruct surveyors to select person called "anchor" and count 5 persons to the right of them - fifth person invited to participate in study - do this until 3 surveys accepted - select new anchor - record responses to calculate response rates along w estimated race/ethnicity/sex/gender of those refusing
Symbolic interactionism
micro level theory that analyzes how 1 on 1 interactions shape humans
Politics and Haitian migrants
Haitian deportees outpace other countries bc: * anti=Blackness in enforcement outcomes * increased exposure to immigration authorities and surveillance * uneven enforcement outcomes reflect policy choices
Arena approach
only gov.’s define goals, policies and binding decisions for a whole society and this is what politics are about * politics about activities that lead up to binding decisions + institutions that make them * less inclined to see politics as generalized process
Process approach
politics not confined to institutional areas/sites * involves formal gov. but goes beyond to include much wider range of institutions, activities and groups