Biology 1050 Final Exam ECU

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



241 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (241)
Intrinsic value
The inherent value of biodiversity, independent of its value to humans
Extrinsic (utilitarian) value
The value of biodiversity to humans, often described as ecosystem services can be grouped in four categories
Extrinsic value categories:
Provisioning services, habitat services, regulating services, cultural services
Provisioning services
Food, raw materials, fresh water, medicines
Habitat services
Habitat for species, maintenance of genetic diversity
Regulating services
Air, water, soil quality, carbon storage and climate regulation, pollination and biological control
Cultural services

Aesthetics and inspiration, recreation and mental health, tourism

What levels does biodiversity occur?
Ecosystem, species, genes and alleles
Where does the greatest biodiversity occur?
Diversity is reduced with increasing latitude - AWAY from the equator
On average, how long do species persist for?
10 million years
Mass extinctions
A large number of species become extinct over a short amount of time
Background extinctions
These extinctions occur at lower rates during times other than mass extinctions
Geographic range
Species restricted in their range are more vulnerable than species with extensive ranges
Local population size
Species with small population sizes are at increased risk of extinction
Habitat tolerance
Species with narrow habitat tolerances are at greater risk of extinction than species with broader habitat tolerances
Invasive species
Brown tree snake, purple loosestrife, zebra mussels
How do human activities damage our environment?
Burning fossil fuels - releasing elements into the atmosphere the mix with water vapor
Acid rain harms what?
Forests and aquatic ecosystems
Greenhouse effect
1. Energy from the sun passes easily through the atmosphere to warm the earth's surface 2. Some energy is reflected back toward safe and escapes the atmosphere 3. Some energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases and remains trapped in the atmosphere, heating the air
On average the temperature of the earth has increased rapidly over how many years?
Past 50 years
Strategies for a solution to global warming?
Reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (burning fossil fuels)
What do trapped bubbles in ice cores show?
Atmospheric composition, greenhouse gas concentration, temperature trends, snowfall, solar activity, frequency of fires
Biological systems show the effects of climate change how?
Trees and flowers blooming earlier in the northern latitudes, migratory birds are arriving at summer ranges earlier, birds and butterflies are expanding geographic ranges northward, arctic ice is thinning and melting
What are the warnings of global climate change?
Infectious disease may change or expand ranges - mosquitoes and ticks
What efforts can be used to fight global climate change?
Reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce deforestation, increase energy efficiency of our homes and cars, new innovative technologies
Biomes are...
Large ecosystems - each determined by temperate and rainfall
Types of terrestrial ecosystem diversity
Tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, temperate grassland, chaparral, desert, tropical rainforest, savanna, polar ice
Aquatic biomes are determined by what?
Physical natures including salinity, water movement, depth
Types of aquatic ecosystems
Lakes and ponds, rivers and streams, estuaries and wetlands, intertidal zones, coral reefs, open oceans
Why are beach communities cooler in summer and warmer in winter than island communities?
Water capacity to absorb and hold heat
Why are there several ocean circulation patterns?
Because of the flow of water in the oceans due to wind, the earth's rotation, the gravitational pull of the moon, temperature, salt concentration
Which beaches have warmer waters, the east coast or the west coast?
East coast
What does thermohaline mean?
The differences in water density which is controlled by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline)
Mountain pressure
Lower pressure at the top and higher pressure at the bottom
How does rain form?
Air is heated and rises, rising air cools, cooling air loses moisture
How does the desert form?
Deserts are formed by weathering processes are large variations in temperatures between day and night outs strained on the rocks, which break into pieces
Types of human engineering
Asphalt, cement, and tops of buildings absorb heat, raising the temperature
What direction to tall buildings channel wind?
What causes seasons?
The earth's tilted axis - when the earth's axis points towards the sun, it is summer for the hemisphere - when the earth's axis points away, winter is expected
Why is it warmer at the equator and cold at the poles?
The sun shines most directly on the earth's equator leading to warmer temperatures at lower latitudes
What is a niche?
The role an organism plays in a community
True or false - parasitism is a form of predation
What kind of relationship do parasites have with their hosts?
Parasites are...
Predators that benefit from a symbiotic relationship with their host
Bedbugs - live ON their host (human)
Tapeworms - live INSIDE their host
What kind of parasite can induce foolish, fearless behaviors in their host?
What kind of parasite can induce inappropriate aggression in their host?
What kind of parasite can induce bizarre and risky behaviors in their host?
Lancet fluke
What is mutualism?
When both species benefit from an interaction - fish scrape algae from the shells of the greens sea turtles
What is commensalism?
When one species benefits from an interstice and the other neither benefits nor is harmed - cattle egret feeds on insects stirred up by a gazing buffalo
Describe predation
When there is an interactive between two species in which one species eats the other
Where does energy flow within an ecosystem?
From producers to consumers
Define producers
Plants convert light energy from the sun into food through photosynthesis - grass
Define primary consumers
Herbivores are animals that eat plants - bunny rabbit
Define secondary consumers
Carnivores are animals that eat herbivores - snakes
Define tertiary consumers
Top carnivores are animals that eat other carnivores - eagle or owl
What is the 10% rule?
Approximately 10% form the biomass from each tropic levels is converted into biomass in the next tropic level
1st law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
With EVERY transfer of energy the quality of the engird decreases
The carbon cycle
1. Carbon enters the atmosphere as CO2 2. CO2 is absorbed by plants 3. Animals consume plants, thereby, incorporating carbon into their system 4. Animals and plants die, their bodies decompose and carbon is reabsorbed back into the atmosphere
An animal that cannot produce its own food and must eat plants or other animals for energy - (they can be herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) - insects, reptiles, mammals
An organism that produces its own food - plants or algae
A consumer that eats only plants - grasshopper
A consumer that eats both plants and animals - humans
A consumer that only eats meat - lions
What does biotic mean?
Living things
What are the levels of ecology?
Individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems
What does abiotic mean?
Nonliving things
knowt flashcard image
Exponential growth
A populations size increases at a rate proportional to its current size
What happens when populations increase in size?
Increases competition for food, increasing competition for places to live and breed, increases the chances of parasites and disease, increase predation risk
knowt flashcard image
Logistic growth
Population growth has stabilized because of the resource limitations
Population density
The number of individuals in a given area
Density-dependent factors
Conditions that limit population growth due to population size in a given area
Carrying capacity - K
The ceiling on growth for a given population in a particular environment
R selected
Many offspring with little care
K selected
Few offspring, but you put energy into making sure that the reach reproductive age
How many people were there on Earth as of October 31, 2011?
Over 7 billion people
By 2050, approximately how many people will there be on Earth?
Between 10 and 12 billion people
Less developed country - Kenya
Triangle shape due to high birth rates and high death rates in older individuals
More developed countries - Norway
Rectangular shape due to low birth rates and low death rates in older individuals
Demographic transition - Slow growth
Populations with low food supply and lack of reliable health care usually have high birth and death rates Birth rate: high Death rate: high Population growth rate: low
Demographic transition - High growth
Improvements in food production and health care reduce the death rate - the birth rate remains relatively high so the population grows rapidly Birth rate: high Death rate: low Population growth rate: low
Demographic transition - Slow growth
With continued industrialization comes higher levels of education and employment and improved health care - these factors reduce the birth rate and slow the population's growth Birth rate: low Death rate: low Population growth rate: low
Density-dependent factors
Disease, lock of food, pollution, competition
True or false - Individuals do not evolve
True - populations evolve
What does microevolution mean?
Changes that occur in the genetic characteristics of a population over time
Charles Darwin
Described the idea of Natural Selection - The Origin of Species - Published in 1859
George Cuvier
Founder of comparative anatomy - the ability to reconstruct animals from fragments of fossil fuels
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Living species might change over time - religious beliefs - that God created everything exactly as it is now
Charles Lyell
1830 Book of Geological Factors - had shaped the earth and were continuing to do so - gradual but constant change - gradualism
Thomas Malthus - Essay on the Principle of Population
He was an economist - his theory states that food production will not be able o keep up with growth on human population, resulting in disease, famine, war, and calamity
Natural selection
The process by which populations adapt to their environment
Alfred Russel Wallace
Independently identified processes of evolution by natural selection - 1858
Theory VS Scientific Theory
Theory: everyday theory means the best guess Scientific theory: Boyd of scientifically acceptable general principles that help explain how the universe works
Evidence of evolution is shown by...
Fossil records, biogeography, homologies, molecular biology, lab and field experiments
The study of the distribution patterns of living organisms around the world
Are preserved remains of organisms from long ago
The similarity in characteristics that results from common ancestry - similarities can be in behavior, dna, and physical structure
Comparative anatomy and embryology reveal common evolutionary origins
Shared embryological stages indicate common ancestry
Comparative anatomy
Vestigial traits are nonfunctional traits in organisms - they are similar to function traits in other organisms
Evolutionary Changes: Mutations
Is the ultimate source of genetic variation in a population Mutations either: - Do not impact fitness - Cause early death - Reduce an organisms reproductive success
Genetic drift
Can lead to fixation (an alleles frequency in a population reaches 100%)
True or false - Polydactyly is a dominant allele
Migration (gene flow)
Movement of some individuals of a species from one population to another
Variation of a Trait
Think of dogs - different kinds of dogs but all function the same
Traits from parents to their children through genetic information inheritance or heritability
Differential Reproductive Success
1. There are more organisms born than can survive 2. Organisms are continually struggling for existence 3. Some organisms are more likely than others to survive and reproduce
The process by which organisms become better matched to their environment and the specific features that make an organism more fit
Hba Hba Homozygote
- Does not have sickle-cell disease - Is susceptible to malaria
Hbs Hba Heterozygote
- Does not have sickle-cell disease - Is immune to malaria
Hbs Hbs Homozygote
- Has sickle-cell disease - Is immune to malaria
How is an individuals fitness measured?
An individuals fitness is measured relative to other genotypes or phenotypes in the population
What do all living things share?
Carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, ATP
Different versions of a gene that code of the same feature
Any single characteristic or feature of an organism
What kind of cell does meiosis start with?
A diploid cell
Homologous pair
The maternal or paternal copies of a chromosome
Meiosis - Interphase
Each chromosome in a homologous pair replicates to form a sister chromatid
Meiosis 1
Homologous pairs separate
Meiosis 2
The sister chromatids separate - creating 4 haploid cells - 2 contain a single copy of one of the original chromosomes - 2 contain a single copy of the other chromosome
Law of Segregation
Pairs separate during meiosis
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
All of the genes contained an organisms - alleles you have for eye color
The physical manifestations of the instructions - this is your eye color
A allele
Dominant allele for normal coat color
a allele
Recessive allele for albino coat color
Homozygous dominant
Heterozygous dominant
Homozygous recessive - albino
Genotypic ratio
Expresses whether or not the offspring are homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive
Phenotypic ration
Expresses what traits the offspring are exhibiting (ear lobe shape or blood type)
Incomplete dominance
Occurs when a heterozygote exhibits an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygotes
Multiple allelism
- A single-parent gene has more than two alleles - Each individual still carries only two alleles
What are the different types of blood?
A, A, AB, O
Which blood types are dominant to O?
A and B alleles
Which blood types are codominant to each other?
A and B alleles
A foreign in substance that enters your body
A protein produced by your immune system to attack and fight off the antigen
Type A blood
- Can donate to A and AB - Can receive from A and O
Type B blood
- Can donate to B and AB - Can receive from B and O
Type AB blood
- Can donate to AB - Can receive from A, B, AB, O
Type O blood
- Can donate to A, B, AB, O - Can receive from O
What does "poly" mean?
1 gene controlling many traits
X-linked genes
- Much larger and carries more genes - ALL recessive
How many X-linked genes for a male carry?
Y-linked genes
- Located on the Y chromosome - Passes ONLY from fathers to sons - very few genes on the Y chromosome
Nature gene
The genes we are born with and other hereditary factors that can impact how our personality is formed
Nurture gene
Encompasses the environmental factors that impact who we are
Sections of bonding, repetitive dna that acts as a protective cap to the top of each chromosome
To enable cells to generate new genetically identical cells - growth and replacement
Somatic cells
Are cells forming the body of the organism - have the diploid number of chromosomes
Reproductive cells
Are the sex cells
Mitosis stage 1
Interphase: dna is copied
Mitosis stage 2
Mitosis: dna is split equally into two daughter cells
Mitosis stage 3
Cytokinesis: parents cell is cleaved in half
Chromosomes in eukaryotes are...
Chromosomes in prokaryotes are...
Characterized by unrestrained cell growth and division that can damage adjacent tissues
Benign tumors
Masses of normal cells - don't spread
Malignant tumors
Shed and spread cancer cells - metastasis
How does cancer travel?
Cancer travels through the body by way of the lymphatic and circulatory system
What is a biopsy?
A surgical procedure of the removal of cells, tissues, or fluid for analysis
Cancer stage 0
Carcinoma in situ - early cancer that is present only in the layer of cells in which is began
Cancer stage 1, 2, 3
Higher numbers indicate more extensive diseases - greater tumor size, and or spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes and or organs adjacent to the primary tumor
Cancer stage 4
The cancer has spread to another organ
Chemicals that kill diving cells are injected into the blood stream
Radiation therapy
High-energy particles of the dna so cells don't divide - is often administered in addition to chemotherapy
If the patient is no longer suffering negate impact from cancer are a given period
BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes
- Breast cancer - Ovarian cancer - Prostate cancer - Pancreatic cancer
Which cancers are the most curable?
Testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, many cases of leukemia, skin cancers, thyroid cancer, cancer of the larynx
Which cancers are the most difficult to treat?
Lung, colon, breast, prostate
What is prostate cancer?
The prostate gland is below the bladder and in front of the rectum - makes a fluid that mixes with sperm and other fluids during ejaculation - Prostate cancer can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body or grow slowly and stay in the prostate - 3 our of 4 cases of prostate cancer are slow growing
Early detection
Self exams and mammography
Breast cancer treatment
Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, anti-hormonal treatment
Breast cancer treatment - tamoxifen
Blocks the action of the female hormone, estrogen - Estrogen promotes the growth of some type of breast cancer
The major cause of cervical cancer - 10,000 were diagnosed in 2006 and nearly 4,000 will die from fit
Are sex cells - which have the haploid number of chromosomes
Are all the chromosomes EXCEPT the sec chromosomes
The purpose of meiosis
1. It reduces the amount of genetic material in gametes 2. It produces gametes that differ from one another with respect to the combinations of alleles they carry
Diploid cells
Have two copies of each chromosomes
Two haploid cells merge to create a diploid individual
Female chromosome
Male chromsome
Trisomy 21
Down syndrome - Dr. John Langdon Down in 1866 - affects 1 in 1,000 children
Unequal distribution of chromosomes during cell division
Recombinant dna
Involves using enzymes and various laboratory techniques to manipulate and isolate dna segments of interest
The creation of a cope of a cell or of an entire living thing
Mitochondrial dna
Inherited from female - "haplogroups"
Dna structure
- Double helix: two sugar-phosphate backbones spiral around each other
The unit of a dna molecule has three components - a phosphate group, a sugar, nitrogen-containing base
What 3 components make up the nucleotide unit of dna?
A sugar, a phosphate group, nitrogen-contains base
What are the base pairs for dna?
A-T (apples to trees) G-C (garage to car)
Rna structure
- A sugar molecule in the RNA backbone contains an extra oxygen - Instead of thymine, rna has a similar base called uracil - Rna has only one sugar phosphate backbone
Rna function
Rna acts like the middleman molecule, it takes instructions for the production of a protein from dna, moves Tham to another part of the cell, directs the building of a protein
A copy of a genes base sequence in made - by reading the information coded in dna
That copy is used to direct the production of a polypeptide - using information from dna in building useable molecules
Potential energy
The energy that is stored in the bonds between atoms (ball at top of a hill)
Kinetic energy
When bonds are broken, energy is released (ball rolling down a hill)
Glucose equation
ATP equation
ATP - ADP + phosphate group + energy release
What is atp?
A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making rna
Why is atp important?
Provides the energy needed for many essential processes in organisms and cells
Photosynthesis equation
CO2 + H2O + light energy - C6H12O6 + O2
What is aerobe cellular respiration?
The process of cellular respiration that takes place in the presence of oxygen gas to produce energy from food
Why is oxygen important in the process of aerobic cellular respiration?
Glucose reacts with oxygen, forming atp that can be used by the cell
Electromagnetic spectrum
Range of energy within a ray of light that is organized into different wavelengths
Short the wavelength, higher the ______
How do plants use light?
All plants require light for photosynthesis, the process within a plant that converts light, oxygen, and water into carbohydrates (energy)