Biology: Histology of Plants and Animals

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(1)Green Algae (2)Mosses (3)Lycophytes (4)Ferns (5)Gymnosperms (6)Dicots (7)Monocots
- Plant Evolution (1) not a plant yet but associated due to chloroplasts (2) has no vascular tissue, xylem and phloem (3) & (4) vascular plants that have xylem and phloem (5) has seed but no flowers (6) & (7) has seeds and flowers
• Roots, Stems, Leaves (1) Root System (2) Shoot System
• the evolved three basic organs: (1 & 2) 2 Systems the Basic Plant Structure is organized into
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- multicellular organ that anchors the plant, absorbs minerals & water and stores organic nutrients
(1) Taproot (2) Lateral or Branch Root (3) Root hair
• parts of Taproot system (1) the main vertical root (2) what the vertical root gives rise to (3) increases the surface area and where absorption of water and minerals occur
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• Fibrous Root System ? Fibrous Root
- characterized by thin lateral roots with no main roots - what monocots and seedless vascular plants have
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Prop Root
- supports tall top heavy plants like rubber plants and banyan trees - Modified Root
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- “air roots” that enable root systems to capture oxygen. Ex. Mangroves - Modified Roots
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Storage roots
- for storage of starch and water. Ex. Radishes - Modified Root
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Aerial Roots
- roots that go up the plant and sometimes function as a pneumatophore. Ex. orchids, mangroves - Modified Root
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Buttress Roots
- support tall trunks of some tropical trees “like buttresses.” Ex. Silk Cotton Tree - Modified Root
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(1) Node (2) Internode (3) Stem (4) Axillary bud (5) Apical bud/terminal bud
- Parts of a Stem
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- alternating system of points at which leaves are attached - part of a stem
- the stem segments between nodes - part of a stem
- an organ consisting of nodes, internodes, axillary bud and apical bud
Axillary bud
- a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch - part of a stem
Apical Bud
- located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot - part of a stem
- modified stem
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- modified stem
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- modified stem
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- modified stem
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- the most photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants
(1)Petiole (2)Blade
• parts of a leaf (1) joins the leaf to a node of the stem (2) flattened; the whole leaf
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Monocots have parallel veins, Eudicots have branching veins
• Difference between the arrangement of a monocot leaf and dicot leaf
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• 1 Blade, 1 Petiole • Many Blades, 1 petiole • Many Blades in 1 Leaflette
• simple leaves • compound leaves • doubly compound leaves
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- curls up and forms vines - modified leaf
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- pointed or prickly leaf - modified leaf
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reproductive leaves
- modified leaf
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- a leaf with a small flower on its axil - modified leaf
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Storage Leaves
- can store starches for underground or water if above ground - modified leaf
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(1) Mesophyll (2) Palisade cell (3) Spongy cell (4) Guard cell (5) Stoma
- the inside of a leaf
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Permanent Tissues
- tissues in a plat that contain non-dividing cells - the cells in these tissues are modified to perform specific functions in the plants - the cells from these tissues are derived from meristematic tissue
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Simple Permanent Tissue
- maintenance and support of the plant - kind of permanent tissue
Parenchyma •chlorenchyma
- spherical and thin-walled cells - located throughout the plant • photosynthetic parenchyma cells - type of simple permanent tissue
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- elongated with thick cell walls - beneath epidermis in stems and leaf veins - flexible support - type of simple permanent tissue
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- has primary and secondary cell walls - dead at functional maturity; merely there for support - heavily lignified - Ex. Fibers: wood bark & Sclereids: fruits and seed - type of simple permanent tissue
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Complex Permanent Tissue
- transports of materials - kind of permanent tissue
- transports water and minerals - type of complex permanent tissue
(1)Vessel element (2)Perforation plate (3)Tracheid (4)Pits
• parts of different xylems (1) wide (2) ends with each vessel element (3) narrow with tapered ends (4) found in tracheids
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- transports other materials like glucose
(1)Sieve-tube member (2)Companion cell (3)Sieve plate
• parts of Phloem (1) main passageway (2) helps in managing nutrient flow (3) end of each sieve-tube member
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Meristematic Tissues
- undifferentiated plant cells
Primary Growth
- increase in the LENGTH of shoot and root systems - facilitated by apical meristem
Secondary Growth
- increase in the GIRTH of shoot and root systems - facilitated by lateral meristem
Apical Meristem
- situated in tips of root and shoot - gives rise to primary meristem members - type of meristematic tissue based on location
? Primary Meristems (1)Protoderm (2)Ground Meristem (3)Procambium
• the meristem members Apical Meristem gives rise to (1) will become Epidermis (2) will become Ground tissue (3) will become Vascular tissue
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? Primary Tissues (1)Epidermis (2)Ground Tissue (3)Vascular Tissue
• what the Primary meristem members will become (1) was Protoderm (2) was Ground Meristem (3) was Procambium
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Lateral Meristem
- situated in sides of root and shoots - give rise to secondary meristem
? Secondary Meristems (1)Vascular Cambium (2)Cork Cambium
• the meristem members Lateral Meristems gives rise to (1) produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem (2) produces Cork
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Intercalary meristem
- situated in tips and base of stem and leaves - found only in monocots - allows rapid growth in the nodes
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(1)Apical Meristem (2)Intercalary Meristem (3)Lateral Meristem
- types of meristematic tissues
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? Apical Meristem (a)Protoderm, - (1)Epidermis (b)Procambium - (1)Primary phloem - (2)Vascular cambium - (3) Secondary phloem - (4) Secondary xylem - (5)Primary Xylem (c)Ground Meristem - (1)Pith - (2)Cortex - (3) Peridium - (4) Cork Cambium - (5) Cork
Summaries the Meristematic Tissue
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- the study of the biological form of an organism
- the study of the biological functions an organism performs
Intersitial fluid
- fills the spaces between cells in vertebrates - allows for the movement of material into and out of cells
(1)Cell (2)Tissue (3)Organ (4)Organ System
- Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans (1)Basic structural and functional unit of life (2)Similar working cells together to carry out a particular function (3)Interact with each other in order to accomplish a particular life function (4)Exhibit structural and functional interdependency
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous
- 4 main categories of Animal Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
- made up of cells that line inner and outer body surfaces, such as the skin and the lining of the digestive tract - protects the body and its internal organs, secretes substances such as hormones, and absorbs substances such as nutrients - covers the outside of the body - contains cells that are closely joined - have 2 different sides since they are polarized
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(1)Squamous (2)Cuboidal (3)Columnar
- The possible shape of epithelial cells (1) shaped like floor tiles (2) shaped like dice (3) shaped like bricks on end
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(1)Simple (2)Pseudostratified (3)Stratified
- The possible arrangement of epithelial cells (1) single cell layer (2) single layer of cells of varying length (3) multiple tier of cells
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? Simple Squamous Epithelium
- located un the air sacs of lungs and the lining of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels - allows materials to pass through by diffusion and filtration, and secretes lubricating substance
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? Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
- located in ducts and secretory portions of small glands and in kidney tubules - secretes and absorbs
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? Simple Columnar Epithelium
- can be CILIATED tissues located in the bronchi, uterine tubes and uterus or NONCILIATED tissues found in the digestive tract and bladder - absorbs; it also secretes mucous and enzymes
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? Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
- these are CILIATED tissues that line the trachea and much of the upper respiratory tract - secretes mucus; ciliated tissue moves the mucus
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? Stratified Squamous Epithelium
- lines the esophagus, mouth and vagina - protects against abrasion
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? Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
- located in sweat glands, salivary glands and the mammary glands - protective tissue
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? Stratified Columnar Epithelium
- located in the male urethra and the ducts of some glands - secretes and protects
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? Transitional Epithelium
- lines the bladder, urethra and the uterers - allows the urinary organs to expand and stretch
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Connective Tissue
- made up of cells that form the body’s structure. Examples include bone and cartilage - mainly binds and supports other tissues - contains packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix - the MATRIX consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike or solid foundation
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(1)Collagenous fibers (2)Elastic fibers (3)Reticular fibers
• types of connective tissue fibers, all made of protein (1) provide strength and flexibility (2) stretch and snap back to their original length (3) join connective tissue to adjacent tissues
Fibrous connective tissue, Supportive connective tissue and Fluid connective tissue
• 3 types of connective tissue
(1)fibroblasts (2)macrophages (3)collagen fibers
• common cells contained by connective tissue
Loose fibrous connective tissue or areolar tissue
- supports epithelium and many internal organs - form of fibrous connective tissue
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Adipose tissue
- a special type of loose fibrous connective tissue in which the cells enlarge and store fat
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Dense fibrous connective tissue
- contains many collagen fibers packed together. Can be found in TENDONS, which connect muscles to bones and in LIGAMENTS, which connect bones to other bones at joints
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Cartilage and Bone
- examples of supportive connective tissues
(1)Chondroblasts (2)Chondrocytes
- produce the matrix in cartilages
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Osteoblasts and Osteocytes
- forms the bone matrix
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- small chambers separated by a solid, yet flexible matrix where the cell in CARTILAGES lie in - where BONE CELLS are located between the rings of matrix in bones
- essential for the growth and maintenance of cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
- the most common type of cartilage - contains only COLLAGEN fibers. - the matrix has a glass translucent appearance
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Elastic cartilage
- has more elastic fibers than hyaline cartilage making it more flexible
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- has a matrix containing strong collagen fibers - found in structures that withstand tension and pressure
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- the most rigid connective tissue. - it consists of extremely hard matrix of inorganic salts, notably CALCIUM SALTS
(1) Compact (cortical) bone
- makes up the shaft of a LONG BONE - it consists of cylindrical structural units called OSTEONS(Haversian systems)
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(2) Spongy (trabecular) bone
- composes the end of the long bones that are covered by compact bones - surrounds the BONE MARROW CAVITY - appears as an open, bony latticework with numerous bony bars and plates
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? Osteon (1) Haversian/central canal (2) canaliculi(minute canals)
• the Haversian systems (1) surrounded by rings of hard matrix. It is where nerve fibers carry nerve impulses and blood vessels carry nutrients that allow bone to renew itself (2) Within it, thin extensions of bone cells connect the cell to each other and to the central cana;
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(1)Osteocyte (2)Osteoblasts (3)Osteogenic cell (4)Osteoclasts
(1) maintains bone tissue (2) forms bone matrix (3) stem cell (4) reabsorbs bone
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- transports nutrients and oxygen to tissue fluid - has a liquid extracellular matrix called PLASMA which consists of water, salts and dissolved proteins - type of fluid connective tissues
Tissue fluid
- bathes the body’s cells and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes
a. 55% (a1) Water (a2) Proteins (a3) Other solutes b. <1% (b1)Platelets(thrombocytes) (b2)Leukocytes(white blood cells) c. 44% (c1) Erythrocytes
• composition of blood
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- a clear, watery, sometimes faintly yellowish fluid derived from tissue fluid - it contains white blood cells
Muscle tissue
- made up of cells that have the unique ability to contract or become shorter. The muscles attached to bones enable the body to move - consists of long cells called MUSCLE FIBERS, which contract in response to nerve signals
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Skeletal or striated muscle
- responsible for voluntary movements - these are muscles attached to skeleton - has striations
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Smooth muscles
- responsible for involuntary body activities - found in blood vessel walls and walls of the digestive tract - does not have striations
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Cardiac muscle
- responsible for contraction of the hearts; involuntary - occurs in the wall of the heart - has striations and intercalated discs, which allows the muscle cells to contract with synchronicity
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Nervous tissue
- senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal - made up of NEURONS or nerve cells that carry electrical messages - makes up the brain and the nerves that connect the brain to all parts of the body
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? Glial Cells or Glia a. Schwann Cells b. Oligodendrocytes c. Microglial cells d. Astrocytes
• help nourish, insulate and replenish neurons a. ensheathe axons in the Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) b. ensheathe axons in the Central Nervous Systems(CNS) c. are phagocytes related to cells of the immune systems d. are metabolic support cells in the CNS 
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a. Sensory Neurons b. Interneurons c. Motor Neurons
Types of Nerve Tissue
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