freshman biology final

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75 Terms
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(Scientific Method + Processes) qualitative data
(Scientific Method + Processes) quantitative data
numerical data
(Scientific Method + Processes) independent variable
a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables that are being measured
(Scientific Method + Processes) dependent variable
changes in response to the independent variable
(Scientific Method + Processes) control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment and is compared to the groups that do
(Scientific Method + Processes) experimental group
the group in an experiment that is being tested
(Scientific Method + Processes) constants
the factors in an experiment that remain the same
(Scientific Method + Processes) purpose
the question being asked
(Scientific Method + Processes) hypothesis
an educated guess backed by research
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) neutrons
particles with a neutral charge in the nucleus
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) electrons
negatively charged particles outside of the nucleus
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) what happens to an atom that gains an electron?
it becomes negatively charged
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) what happens to an atom that loses an electron?
it becomes positively charged
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) atomic number
the number of protons/electrons in the nucleus of an atom
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) covalent bonds
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) nonpolar covalent bond
equal sharing of electrons
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) ionic bond
a chemical bond created from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) metabolic reactions
the chemical reactions that take place inside a living organism that change food into energy
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) anabolic reactions
the building of large and complex molecules from smaller, simple ones using energy
(Chemical Bonding + Reactions) catabolic reactions
the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules, often using hydrolysis
(Water) aquaporin
water channel protein in a cell used to transport water
(Water) cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
(Water) adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
(Water) ice formation
water molecules in an ice crystal are spaced relatively far apart because of hydrogen bonding
(Water) surface tension
the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
(Water) capillary action
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
(Water) high specific heat
water can absorb lots of heat before changing temperature
(Water) hydrophobic
repelled by water
(Water) hydrophilic
attracted to water
(Water) solute
the substance that is dissolved
(Water) solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves
(Water) solution
a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) organic molecule
carbon-based molecule
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) hydrolysis reaction
water is used to break down a polymer
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) dehydration reaction
chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) enzyme
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) what is the common ending of an enzyme?
(Biomolecules + Enzymes) denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or changes in pH
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) 3 parts of cell theory
all organisms are made of cells, all existing cells are produced by other living cells, the cell is the most basic unit of life
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) prokaryotic cells
do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) eukaryotic cells
have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells (eukaryotic) where photosynthesis occurs
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) mitochondria
organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production inside of eukaryotic cells
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) ribosomes
site of protein synthesis (eukaryotic and prokaryotic)
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction (eukaryotic)
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) cell wall
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) golgi body
"quality control", modifies and processes proteins made by the cell
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) lysosome
organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) peroxisome
organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) which organelles came from endosymbiosis?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
(Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Cells + Organelles) endosymbiosis definition
a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
(Cell Transport) what are plasma membranes made of?
a phospholipid bilayer that is made up of phospholipids with polar and hydrophilic heads, and non-polar and hydrophobic tails
(Cell Transport) what can easily pass through a cell membrane?
small nonpolar molecules
(Cell Transport) what cannot pass through the cell membrane?
large polar molecules/ions
(Cell Transport) passive transport
the movement of molecules from high to low concentration down the concentration gradient; requires no energy
(Cell Transport) what are the 3 types of passive transport?
simple diffusion (high to low concentration), osmosis (water molecules), facilitated diffusion (movement of hydrophilic molecules using transport protiens)
(Cell Transport) active transport
the movement of molecules from low to high concentration AGAINST the concentration gradient; requires energy
(Cell Transport) sodium-pottasium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
(Cell Transport) isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
(Cell Transport) hypotonic
solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
(Cell Transport) hypertonic
solution with the greater concentration of solutes
(Cell Transport) endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane
(Cell Transport) exocytosis
the process by which cells move materials from within a cell vacuole into the extracellular fluid, occurs when vacuole membrane and cell membrane fuse
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) why are plants green?
chlorophyll reflects green light
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) what is the purpose of photosynthesis?
to convert solar energy into chemical energy and then store that chemical energy for future use
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) what is the balanced equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) what organelle performs photosynthesis?
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) what is the purpose of cellular respiration?
to break down fuel molecules and convert them into usable energy (takes place in the mitochondria)
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis (creates 2 ATP), krebs cycle (creates 2 ATP), electron transport chain (creates 28 ATP); all stages create 32-34 ATP
(Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) what is the balance chemical equation for aerobic cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O (glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water).