Controls involuntary skeletal movements (breathing, sweating, etc) and maintains homeostasis
carries messages from a receptor to the central nervous system
carries a message from the central nervous system to the muscles
links sensory and motor Neurons, can only make connections with other Neurons
receives neurotransmitters from the other Neurons and carries the electrical information down the axon
Keeps and Neuron alive, contains necessary organelles
Carries electrical messages to the axon terminal
A thin layer of fat/protein that covers the axon - makes for smoother/faster travel of neurotransmitters
A small bulb at the end of a Neuron which passes neurotransmitters to the next Neuron
Involuntary movement in response to stimuli. Reflex actions are used in survival situations
What happens to cause a reflex action?
Sensory neuron carries a message from receptor to spinal cord. Interneuron then sends two simultaneous messages to the brain and muscles. This means the muscle is moving at the same time the brain is receiving the message
collection of glands that secrete hormones to maintain a stable internal environment
Chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells
a cell that has a receptor for a specific hormone
The Pituitary Gland is known as?
The master gland because it controls the function of all the Endocrine glands in the body
an organism/infectious agent that is capable of causing disease
Examples of a Pathogen
Bacteria, Fungus, Virus
What does the First Line of Defence do?
Prevents Pathogens from entering the body - is a non-specific immune response
Wash away foreign particles and also contain lysosomes/other secretions
Removes foreign particles from the airway
A physical barrier but also has glands that release antibacterial/anti-fungal chemicals
Where is mucous found?
the lining of digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary tracts
Traps pathogens until they can be removed by coughing, sneezing, etc
kills microbes before they reach the intestinal tract
The inflammatory response
reaction to damaged tissue. blood vessels around infected are receive more blood which causes clotting so pathogens can't circulate the body
Symptoms of the Inflammatory Response
pain, redness, heat, swelling
Bacteria enters the body and releases proteins, proteins alert white blood cells (macrophages) to its location. Kills bacteria by attaching themselves and entrapping the bacterium in a structure called a phagosome. Enzymes breaks bacterium down into pieces and it becomes harmless.
Third Line of Defence
Lymphatic System, a specific immune response that produces lymphocytes (B Cells and T Cells)
Produce antibodies that bind onto specific pathogens
Recognise specific pathogen and kill it which can take a week to occur.
When antibodies are stored as memory cells so the body can kill the pathogen before it can make an organism sick
Number of Protons (which is also equal to the number of electrons)
negative charge, next to no mass and move in electron shells
The number of electrons in the outermost shell
Electron shell maximum
2, 8, up to calcium - 8 and above calcium - 18, 32
In columns and dictate the number of valence electrons
In rows and dictate number of electron shells
lustrous, good conductor, malleable, ductile, very reactive
Both Alkali Metals (Group 1) and Alkaline Earth metals
(Group 2) have mostly the same properties:
low melting point, soft, highly reactive, down the group - becomes more reactive, react strongly with water
Non-ductile, bad conductors, brittle, dull appearance, large range of melting/boiling points, only 18 elements.
Have both metal and non-metal properties, conduct electricity well but otherwise have more non-metal properties
Halogens (Group 17)
7 valence electrons, capacity to react with metal to form salt. Down the group - melting/boiling points increase and there is less reactivity. Can have lethal affects on bacteria/fungi so used in cleaning supplies
Noble Gases (Group 18)
8 valence electrons except helium, gases at room temperature, un-reactive
the number of neutrons and protons
Arrangement of electrons in orbital electron shells