Victimology Unit exam 1-3

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Which of the following is least likely to be a group at risk of victimization according to the Lifestyle approach to victimization?
college students
One of the most controversial areas of victimology has been and continues to be the concept known as _____________?
victim blaming
From 1984 to the present, the victims' movement has been characterized by a(n) ___________in the professionalism of the victims' service advocates and providers.
Marvin E.Wolfgang conducted the first major study of victim precipitation when he focused on _____, studying both the victim and the offender as separate entities and as mutual participants.
This research examined the circumstances surrounding a crime by looking the convergence of motivated offenders, suitable victims, and absence of capable guardians. Criminal violations are incidents that will occur when a set of circumstances converge. This theory is called _________?
RAT (routine activities theory)
_________________was considered one of the first known attempts to establish a written code of conduct
The Code of Hammurabi
is the study of crime as a social phenomenon
This theory combined two theories by linking dimensions of social inequality and definitions of crime to exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This theory is called _________?
opportunity model of victimization
According to some in the feminists movement, rape is primarily a way for the perpetrator to ___________ the victim?
A and B are correct (control and dominate, create fear as a control mechanism)
The Victims of Crime Act of 1984 includes all of the provisions except ________?
The right to be present at the defendant's execution.
Mendelsohn came to the conclusion that there was usually __________interpersonal relationship between the offender and the victim.
a strong
This research examined exposure and guardianship as it relates to victimization. This theory is called _________?
lifestyle theory
Hindelang and his colleagues examined exposure and guardianship as they relate to victimization. They call this theory the _____ approach to victimization, which argues that the likelihood of becoming a victim depends on an individual's lifestyle.
Which of the below was NOT one of Von Hentig's psychological types of victims?
mentally defected
Which of the following is not one of the negative consequences of victim blaming as mentioned by the author?
All of the above are negative consequences of 'victim-blaming'
Latin for "to stand by the decided law"
stare decisis
Two great documents that contributed to the rise of individual rights were
constitution & Magna Carta
Written laws are also called
statutory laws
Karmen correctly points out that victimologists view the dynamics of the victim's role in society from a ______ perspective.
List the two terms/concepts that are closely related to the correct answer for extra credit question 4
Which of the following facilitate determining jurisdiction?
All of the above (geographic boundary, seriousness of crime, whether it is original or appellate, limited or general)
The concept of _____, is a constitutional mandate that requires fairness and protections in judicial proceedings and applies to both criminal and civil actions.
due process
The US Criminal Justice System has been accused of providing too many protections to criminal defendants throughout the criminal justice process. However, these protections were emplaced to protect individual liberties and strive to ensure the innocent are not unjustly accused. These protections are primarily found in _______.
bill of rights
The location in which a court or governmental agency has the power to hear a case, enforce laws and punish violators is called __________.
The Preliminary Hearing is for the Judge to make an impartial determination on whether or not there is sufficient ________ to believe a crime has been committed and that the Defendant likely committed it.
probable cause
Which sentencing goal is most similar to the concept of "just desserts"?
________ is the concept that the State is the ultimate parent of all children
parens patrea
The role of _______is assigned in our criminal justice system to the U.S. Supreme Court
interpreting the US constitution
Courts that only hear and decide certain limited legal issues are referred to as
courts of limited jurisdiction
During _______ the suspect's name, offense, fingerprints, photo, and other information are entered into the police records.
This level of court is also called a trier of fact.
district courts
The process of _____ refers to taking a suspect into custody in a manner prescribed by law.
The conditional release of an inmate from a prison or other form of correctional institution back into the community is referred to as _______.
Which of the following is essentially the same as pleading "guilty", but cannot be used against the defendant in subsequent civil actions?
nolo contendere
Justice under the concept of _____ focuses on reducing the offender's criminal propensities by counseling, therapy, and vocational training while he or she is incarcerated.
After the Prosecution completes his direct examination of a witness, the Defense attorney the conducts a _________________________ of the witness if he wants
cross examination
When the criminal justice system works in accordance with a victim who wants the defendant to get what he deserves or to be locked up for what he did to them is operating under the concept or goal of
This is a conditional release of a Defendant in which as long as he fulfills the court-ordered terms he will not be incarcerated.
This courtroom participant is responsible to ensure that the State does not unjustly accuse their client. This person is the
defense attorney
During the First, or Initial, Appearance the Defendant is informed of the ___________________ against them, of their right to _____________________, and ________________is usually set
charges, an attorney, bail
During voir dire, both the Defense and the Prosecution can challenge a juror and seek their removal from the potential jury. They generally have unlimited challenges for cause and a limited number of
peremptory challenge
The Hate Crime Statistics Act was passed by Congress in 1990 and mandates that a database of crimes motivated by ________________be collected.
All of the above (race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation)
Which of the following is a reason given in the text for not reporting a crime?
All of the above (It was not important enough to report, The police don't care / don't want to be bothered, the police are inefficient, fear of retaliation)
Validity, under-reporting (minimizing), and over-reporting (exaggerating), small sample size are all problems associated with which of the following?
The Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is used to measure all the following except?
prominence and degree of injury the victim suffered
The amount of crime that goes unreported to police is also known as ___________.
The dark figure
Which of the following information-gathering programs is administered by the FBI?
_____ seeks to determine the needs and problems of state and local criminal justice agencies.
National Assessment Program (NAP)
Which of the following statements are true of surveys such as National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and Self-report Surveys?
They report crime and victimization information from individuals that has not necessarily been reported to the police
The oldest program that is a nationwide statistical computation involving more than 1,600 cities, counties, and state law enforcement agencies who voluntarily provide data on reported crimes.
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
_____ is a nationwide sample of interviews of citizens regarding victimization
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
The goal of the NIBRS program is
correct the shortcomings inherent in the UCR.
According to the text, other sources for data on violence include which of the following?
All of the above (psychiatrist, medical professionals, psychologists)
Which of the following is not an "index" crime?
white collar crime
Which of the following utilizes eight "index crimes"?
The inability to track multiple crimes, victims, and property originating from a single incident is a weakness of which reporting system?
Name one type crime or one group of people not covered / addressed by the NCVS.
Give an additional reason why people may not report a crime.
considered the crime to be a personal or personal matter
The measurement of crime can never be completely accurate.
Name two groups or types of people who are may not report a crime.
witnesses, the one committing the crime