Exam 2

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67 Terms
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The Earth's primitive atmosphere probably consisted of substantial amounts of
Why is the Earth's atmosphere so different from that of the other terrestrial planets?
water dissolved the CO2 and plants made oxygen
Which surface feature is found on all terrestrial planets and the Moon?
Much of the water on Mars
in a layer of permafrost, locked in seasonal ice cap
Tharsis region on mars has so few craters, this suggest that
its the youngest region on the planet
which is not icy in composition
ice are icy in composition
comet nucleus, Kuiper Belt objects, jovian satellites
What is true about solar system densities?
denser planets lie closer to the sun
the major presence of water detected on the moon is in
floors of deep craters
the scarps on mercury were probably caused by
crust cooling and shrinking
what characteristics of satellites give us clues about their origins?
direction, tilt, and shape of their orbits
On our moons, Mercury, Earth, and Mars, there is a variety of meteor crater sizes. Yes the ones on Venus are over 5km across. Why is this?
smaller meteors burn up in its thick atmosphere
What us the most abundant gas in Mars and Venus atmosphere?
Why is CO2 more abundant on mars and Venus than Earth?
Oceans dissolve it and life removes it
Surface features on Europa?
cracks in icy surfaceSu
face feature on Titan?
liquid methane rivers
What makes Io stand out in our solar system?
most volcanic, always changing
What drives geologic activity in terrestrial planets and moons?
internal heating- radioactivity core
Why in general do small planets have less geologic activity than larger planets?
interiors cool and solidify faster
What are exceptions to smaller planets having less geologic heating?
Some experience tidal heating
What processes shape the surface of terrestrial planets and moons?
geologic activity- plates and volcanoes, erosion, and impacts
How do we age date surfaces of planets?
number of craters
What do we mean by primordial atmospheres of planets?
original ones they formed with
what are the primordial atmospheres of planetary bodies?
H and He
Why do some planets lose their primordial atmospheres?
lighter elements reach escape velocities because smaller and warmer temperature
How do we think magnetic fields are generated in planets
metallic liquid core and fast rotation
What do we mean by differentiation
denser material in center, less dense more outward
What characteristics do all terrestrial planets have in common
rocky, differentiated structure, dense, few or no moons, cratering
What do all jovian planets have in common
massive, gas giants, low density, rings, lots of moons
how do the ring systems in jovian planets originate
objects get stuck in orbit and Roche limit
How and why did the solar system originate the way it did?
formed as a disk so planets orbit in same plane and direction
Why is the solar system laid out like that (dense inner, massive, less dense outer)?
How and why is the solar system composed like that
further from sun, lower temp, affects other aspects
What are ways we detect exoplanets
astrometric, direct imaging, transit, radial velocity
Precisely measuring an exoplanets position in the sky and how changes over time
nearly impossible and difficult; done directly with telescopes to find exoplanets
direct imaging
planet outside of the solar system
observing an exoplanet as it crosses its host star; measures depth, duration, and brightness
measures the speed which an exoplanet moves towards or away from the earth
radial velocity
the distance from a star that can have water and host life
habitable zone
structure of the sun (Out to in)
chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, radiation zone, core
How does the sun generate energy
fusion of light nuclei to make heavier ones
What are sunspots
dark, cooler sports
how do sunspots relate to energy output of the sun
related to magnetic fields
The sun is about _____ times larger than the earth
100 times
the sun's average density is roughly the same as that of
the sun spins on its axis roughly once each
AS the distance from the center of the sun increases, the density
decreases faster than temperature
appearance of cells on the sun's surface; 1000km across
solar granules
as we move further above the solar photosphere, the temperature
decreases then increases
fragments of icy material that normally orbit far from the sun
spherical halo surrounding solar system; vast reservoir of cometary material
Oort Cloudpiece
s of interplanetary debris that enter earths atmosphere
meteoroid that reaches the ground
where in the solar system do comets reside
Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud
parts of a comet
nucleus, coma, hydrogen envelope, tail, ion tail, dust tailco
most main belt asteroids are about the size of
small us city
asteroid groups with the smallest perihelion distances also have orbits that are
most eccentric
Spectroscopic studies reveal most asteroids contain large fractions of
Trojan asteroids on jupiters orbits are located
before and after jupiter
tails of a comet point
away from the sun
long period comet orbits can come from
all directions
Kuiper Belt objects are not planets because of their
low mass and cant clear objects
no solid surface, rotation rates differ
differential rotation
jupiters atmosphere
a moon placed at a planets Roche limit will
break into smaller pieces
saturns core
icy and rocky