7. Organ System
What are the 5 Steps of a feedback Loop?
Stimulus --> Receptor --> Control Center --> Effector--> Response
Example of Glucagon: Low Glucose levels (stimulus), Pancreas are triggered and detects disease (receptor), Alpha Cells receives signals from the pancreas and release glucagon (control center), Glucagon acts on the glycogen and sent to the liver and broken down to the blood (effector), and glucose levels start to rise (response). See other examples in notes.
What is a positive feedback loop?
Positive feedback is amplifying the stimulus or pushes away from the normal state. Example would be childbirth or a fruit rotting.
What is a negative feedback loop?
Negative feedback counteracts with the stimulus and the changes of properties from their target values (set points). Example would be body temperature rising, or under body temperature.
What are the characteristics of an Epithelial Tissue?
Significant differences in shapes, including cubes, columns, and even bricks; although, some could have irregular shapes in general. Additionally, the cells are very clustered with zero space between them.
Example: The inside of the stomach and intestines.
What are the characteristics of a Connective Tissue?
The cells are far apart and have a substance called the matrix that fills in between their spaces of them. In the matrix there is fiber, and these fibers are large proteins that strongly support the tissue itself.
What are the characteristics of a Muscular Tissue?
The cells of the muscular tissue are long and thin; however, the three types of muscle tissue have a variation in what they look like. For example, the skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues have stripes across the fibers.
What are the characteristics of a Nervous Tissue?
Also known as neurons, of the nervous tissue are connected to other nerve cells as well. These neurons are supported by glial cells and create a fatty substance known as myelin that surrounds the neurons.
Where is the Cranial Cavity located and what organs are found in this cavity?
Located at the top of the body and contains the brain.
Where is the Spinal cavity located and what are the organs found in the cavity?
Located in the neck area of the body and contains the spinal cord.
Where is the Thoracic cavity located and what are the organs found in the cavity?
Located in the chest and contains the lungs and heart.
Where is the Abdominal cavity located and what are the organs found in the cavity?
Located in the stomach area and contains Stomach, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen intestines, cecum, appendix and other organs.
Where is the Pelvic cavity located and what are the organs found in the cavity?
Located in the bottom part of the body and contains Bladder, ovaries, uterus, rectum, lower parts of intestines.
Which cavities are part of the Dorsal?
The cranial and spinal cavities.
Which cavities are part of the Ventral?
The thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic.
What organs are part of right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdominal cavity?
Liver, stomach, gallbladder, duodenum, right kidney, pancreas, and the right adrenal gland.
What organs are part of left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdominal cavity?
Liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, and the left adrenal gland.
What organs are part of right lower quadrant (RLQ) of the abdominal cavity?
cecum, appendix, right ovary, right ureter.
What organs are part of left lower quadrant (LLQ) of the abdominal cavity?
left ureter, left ovary, (NOTE: All four quadrants contain portions of the small and large intestines.)
Divides body into right and left
Divides body into front and back
Divides body into top and bottom
In front of, toward
the front of the
is anterior to the
Behind, or toward
the back of the
(The heart is
posterior to the
Above, or toward
the head or upper
part of the body
(The forehead is
superior to the
Below, or toward the lower part of a structure of the body (The hips are
inferior to the
Toward, or at the
midline of the
body, on the inner
side of (The heart is
medial to the
Away from the
midline of the
body, on the outer
(The arms are
lateral to the
Close to, or
toward the point of
attachment to the
trunk of the body
(The elbow is
proximal to the
wrist (it is closer
to where the arm
connects to the
Farther from, or
away from the
attachment to the
trunk of the body (The knee is
distal to the
Toward the body
surface (The skin is
superficial to the
Away from the
more internal (The lungs are
deep to the rib
the smallest unit of any element.
A combination of atoms that interact with each other.
each of more than one hundred substances that a not be broken down into something else by a chemical reaction, they do not change.
Chemical formulas that hold lots of information, and a molecule that has more than one element in it. Example of a compound would be Carbon Dioxide, CO2 = 1 carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms.
Charged particles, and unbalance of the protons and electrons in the nucleus. Cations are the positively charged ions giving electrons away, while anions are negatively charged ions that are attracted to electrons.
a chemical that, when it meets up with water, dissolves and releases hydrogen ions, H+.
a substance that, when dissolved in water, releases an OH- ion, which is also called a hydroxide
An ionic bond, some atoms give up electrons to other atoms. This is the kind of bond we see above between sodium and chlorine, which we call sodium chloride.
Describe how polar substances interact in the cell membrane.
The head of the phospholipid molecule is polar. Remember that a polar molecule has a slight charge to it.
And remember that water is polar, and water also makes up most of the fluid inside and outside of your
cells. Polar molecules are slightly attracted to each other, so the polar ends of the phospholipid molecules
are drawn to the water.
Describe how nonpolar substances interact in the cell membrane.
In contrast, the legs of the phospholipid molecule are not charged and don't easily float in water. So, they
sit next to each other, forming the inside of the cell membrane, and the polar heads face the watery inside
and outside of the cell.
Define pH and explain its relationship to homeostasis.
stands for power of hydrogen, or potential hydrogen. Essentially, it's a measure of how readily a chemical
solution will accept H+ ions. If pH is too high or too low, some molecules necessary for important reactions will start to fall
apart or not be able to perform the reactions very efficiently. The pH of your blood is around 7.4.
Maintaining this pH is especially important, because blood is constantly flowing to all of your organs.
Define electrolytes and describe its relationship to homeostasis
Some ions in your body are called
electrolytes. One definition that you may have heard of is that electrolytes are a set of ions that are
important for your body when you're exercising. When electrolyte homeostasis is thrown out of balance, some serious problems can arise, like seizures,
kidney dysfunction, and irregular heartbeats. When you become dehydrated, your electrolytes can
become more concentrated because there is less water in your body, and the high concentration can
make the chemical reactions happen less efficiently. So, it's important to drink water when you're
exercising to keep your electrolyte levels balanced.