Week 1 - Intro

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33 Terms
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Academic Adjustment
One's ability to adequately cope w/ demands of post-secondary education
Factors that impact academic adjustment
Loneliness, Financial Stress, Class Format, Freedom, Social Opportunities, Personal and Emotional Problems
Why don't Trigger Warnings work?
Study showed that trigger warnings did not impact emotional reactions to potentially upsetting content --> when show participants graphic photo & measure anxiety before vs after
Systematic Observation
Careful observation of natural world to better understand it, provide basic data, basis for science
Empirical methods
data gathering tied to actual Measurement and Observation
Essential Elements of Science
Systematic Observation = core of science, Observation leads to hypotheses we can test, Science is democratic, Science is cumulative
Code of Ethics Include...
Informed Consent, Confidentiality, Privacy, Benefits > Risks, Debriefing (needed if deception)
drawing general conclusions from specific observations
Features of Scientific Theories and Data
Accuracy, Consistency, Scope, Simplicity, Fruitfulness, Falsifiability
Inductive Reasoning
Based on Probabilities, used in everyday situation, set of observations --> general conclusion
Deductive Reasoning
General principles applied to specific instances
Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
Assesses probability that collected data would be same if there no relationship between variables
Null Hypothesis vs Alternative Hypothesis
variable not related vs variables are related
Type 1 vs Type 2 Error
1 = found relationship when none, 2 = found no relationship when one exists
spread of values
What means if p-value < 0.05
If study repeated 100 times, same result occurring by chance fewer than 5 times
Scientific Theory
comprehensive framework for making sense of evidence regarding a particular phenomenon
Is science objective?
no, affected by values and interpretations
Levels of analysis
1 phenomenon can be explained at different levels simultaneously
Knowledge from experience, John Locke, Thomas Reid
relationship between physical stimuli and human perception, Ernst Weber, Gustav Fechner
Wilhelm Wundt
Development of Modern Psychology
procedure with goal to identify elements of consciousness
Study contents of mind, Edward Bradford Titchener
William James, G. Stanly Hall, James McKeen Cattell, study activities of mind
G Stanley Hall
founded: first psych lab in America and APA, study adaptation and human development
Francis Cecil Sumner
1st African American PhD in Psychology in America
Gestalt Psychology
Study whole > individual aspects
Reject reference to mind, should study overt and observable behavior --> laws of learning, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov
What Professionalized Psychology?
Organization of American Association for Applied Psychology & American Psychological Association --> standards, WW2 --> mental health need of nation
Scientist-practitioner model of training
emphasize development of research & clinical skills
Scholar-practitioner model
model of training professional psychologists emphasize clinical practice
Social Issues Psychology is involved in
Sex Differences, menstruation, school segregation, homosexuality