Euro History Notebook 5-7 study guide

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51 Terms
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Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement that swept through Europe in 1500’s. It created a new religion called Protestantism which focused on personal connection to god and practicing scripture.
Martin Luther
Monk who began to read classical texts like St. Augustine and Bible. Figured out that church was doing opposite of Bible and told people to start practicing scripture and create closer connection to god.
95 Theses
Written by a man in which he described all of the problems with the church .
Printing Press
Helped people to spread their message and ideas into society
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
People who lived in Bohemia who failed to spread their ideas with public
John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli
The founders of Calvinism
Previous determination as if by destiny or fate. One is predestined to go to heaven and hell and can do nothing to change their fate.
Communion for Calvanists vs Lutherans
One group believed the bread and wine represented Jesus's body, while the other group believed it was the actual blood and body of Jesus.
Group often described as radical and ones to violently defend their ideas.
German Peasant Revolts
As more people began reading Bible they realized it was filled with teachings of rulers being kind, helping the needy, and being benevolent. People realized they were being overworked and overtaexed, They rose up against their lords and ended up killing thousands of people.
Cause of Revolt
Not religious ideas, but based on one persons ideas about Christianity and interpretations of Bible were direct cause.
How Anabaptists were treated
They were deemed radical and were killed, tortured, and imprisoned and were chased out of town
Where Lutheranism was practiced
This was mainly in German, Scandinavian areas, and Netherlands
Where Calvanism was practiced
Mainly in France, Switzerland, and Scotland
Impact of Reformation
Led to devastation of the financial and political power of Church. Princes took Church land and avoided Church taxes. Almost half of all Catholics turned to some form of Protestantism.
Impact of Religious Wars
Which led to deterioration of the economy and population of Europe as well as let Scientific Revolution bloom and freed people from restrictions of Catholic Church
council of trent
a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers
Scriptural authority
Church made it clear that this was not a way of ruling and all decisions were still to be made by the Church.
St. Teresa of Avila
A nun who wrote highly about Catholicism
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish Priest who wrote highly about Catholicism
What St.Teresa of Avila wrote about
dedicating your body and soul to Catholic faith and promoted connection to God.
Spiritual Exercises
wrote a step by step plan on how to be closer to god by maintaining Catholic traditions and rituals
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
a Roman Catholic order founded by Catholic Church in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Index of Prohibited Books
banning anything deemed heretical. Was a whole book on what can't be read by Catholics and was banned by Church.
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church created to discover and suppress heresy. Also traveled around world to seek out 'heretics'. Used brutal methods of murdering, killing thousands of Europeans in Spain, Italy, France, and Netherlands.
Wars of Reformation
Wars of religion and main goal was to defeat Protestant Princes and return them to Catholicism. Started when Church banned Protestantism.
Charles V
King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire.
Schmalkaldic League
alliance formed by Protestant princes and resisted King Charles V for over a decade
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Realizing he could not re-unify Europe, Charles V agreed to settle for harmony at
Importance of Peace Settlement
allowed princes to choose their own religion
Dutch Revolts 1568-1648
Charles Unable to defeat Protestants in German, he was able to fight them vigorously in Netherlands through Spain in 1500's. Dutch were Calvinists and in 1568 began a war that would last 80 years.
Phillip II
only one to outlaw Protestantism and send Inquisition to Netherlands.
Victory of Dutch Protestants
This group won the war as the other party ran out of money and left
French Wars of Religion
Period of war between French Catholics and Protestants. As king was Catholic, it was hard for Huguenots to live. As a result, Huguenot Princes fought and resisted king.
What French Calvinists were called and they were usually spread out
Henry of Navarre
A Protestant that became King of Navarre from 1572. Henry married Margaret Medici who was a Catholic and to support Henry all Protestant princes joined his wedding.
Catherine Medici
Mother in law of Henry of Navarre who arranged to get all Huguenot Princes killed.
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
The day where thousand of Huguenots were murdered including princes,
Impact of Massacre
Led to reduction of religious wars in France
Edict of Nantes
Made all Huguenots legal and safe in Kingdom of France
3 religious wars 1520's to 1648
French wars of Religion, Dutch Revolt, and Thirty year war
Church's solution to Reformation
consider views of Protestants and contemplate reforms
What Church decided in Council of Trent
denied all Protestant Claims and maintained same system
what Catholics did to followers
rather than teaching new things, the Church reinvigorated the people that remained faithful to Catholicism.
what Church encouraged
informed priests, monks, and bishops to look to older Christian texts for inspiration
Contribution of Luther's ideas
It also contributed to the development of common vernacular language and grammar which, eventually, helped develop national identities in the Modern Era
Luther's conflict
Not all people agreed with Luther's ideas only those who read Bible
What Christians believed
should be harmonious Christian society whose rulers are helpful and provide aid
This country helped Protestants during French wars of Religion
Helped Catholics during French Wars of Religion
Bible justified to Luther
none of the rituals, traditions, deeds, or powers of the pope/Church,