psyc exam 2

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The Circadian Rhythm
controls sleep and daily cycles producing variations in blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretions, and other physical functions, and also affects alertness and other levels of cognitive function.
jet lag and shifts
Getting out with your circadian rhythm creates jetlag creating difficulty in falling asleep, making you feel fatigued, sluggish, and generally out of it. Rotation shifts - constant odds with time cues and normal rhythms less total sleep and quality sleep Negatively impact social life mental health
Siesta culture
In tropical regions Siesta culture is normal where shops are closed for people to enjoy a 1-2 mid day nap
is a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods for short period of time into REM sleep
Sleep apnea
involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep Apnea occurs when a person does not breath for over ten seconds
or sleepwalking, occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep. About 15% of children sleepwalk Tends to happen over first three hours of sleep
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)
is marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM periods.
Cultural variations in dream
While dreams are considered insignificant in the western cultures many non western cultures see dreams as an important source of information about oneself, the future, and the spiritual world Some basic dreams by being persued, falling and having sex are universal Contents of dreams may vary vulture from culture
Sigmund freud theory of dreaming
-Wish fulfillment is principle purpose of dreaming -Wish fulfilling quality of many dreams may not be obvious due to unconscious attempts to censor and disguise the true meaning of the dream
Rosalind Cartwright theory of dreaming
-Dreams are the opportunity to work through everyday and emotional problems -Allows reflection on recent emotional experiences and regulation of emotional tone -Contributes to improvements in mood when people awaken
J. Allan Hobson and colleagues Activation-synthesis model
Dreams are side effects of neural activation that produces the beta brain waves during REM sleep according to Hobson et al Neurons firing periodically in lower brain centers send random signals to the cortec The cortex constructs a dream to makes sense out of these signals Downplays the role of emotional factors as determinants of dreams
is a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility. It may also lead to passive relaxation, narrowed attention, and enhanced fantasy.
Hypnosis as role playing
People act out the role of a hypnotic subject and behave as they think hypnotized people are supposed too Evidence: Effects have been duplicated by unhypnotized subjects or exaggerated Situational factors lead susceptible subjects to act out a rolex
Hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness
Dissociation: a splitting of mental processes into two separate simultaneous streams of awareness Includes one who communicates with hypnotist and the external world, and a difficult-to-detect “hidden observer” Evidence: Divided consciousness is a common, normal experience
refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.
Focused attention-
attention is concentrated on a specific object, image, sound, or body sensation to clear the mind of clutter
Open monitoring
Becoming a detached observer by focusing attention on a moment to moment experience, and awareness of one’s own sensations, thoughts
Long term benefits of meditation
Reduces effects of stress, decreases anxiety and negative emotions, and enhances empathy and general well-being May improve cardiovascular health and enhance patterns of sleep May improving concentration, heightening awareness and building
Drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain Euphoria, relaxation, anxiety reduction, pain relief
Sleeping inducing drugs Tend to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity
Tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavior activity Desired effects excitement, increased alertness, Increased energy Reduced fatigue (methamphetamine)
-effects on mental and emotional functioning distorts sensation and perception Desired effect sensory awareness, euphoria, altered perceptions, insightful experiences
The hemp plant which is marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived Desired effects mild euphoria, relaxation, altered perceptions, enhanced awareness
Beverages with ethyl alcohol Desired effects: Mild euphoria, relaxation, anxiety reduction, reduced inhibitions
Drug dependance Physical dependance
Exists when a person must continuing to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness Is a common problem with narcotics, sedatives, and alcohol and is an occasional problem with stimulants
Drug dependance Psychological dependance
Exists when taking a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving Is possible with all recreational drugs, although it seems rare for hallucinogens
5 themes in this chapter
Psychology developed in a social historical context People's experience of the world is highly subjective culture molds some aspects of behavior behavior is governed by multifactorial causation psychology’s theoretical diversity
extinction, in classical conditioning.
extinction, the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
Describe the terminology and procedures in operant research.
Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response. Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response. A Skinner box is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled. Reinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers. The cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time.
Describe shaping Q130 in operant conditioning.
Shaping is using reinforcement to elicit behavior closer and closer to the desired behavior
A schedule of reinforcement
is a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time.
Continuous reinforcement
occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
Intermittent reinforcement
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time. Intermittent Reinforcement leads to a higher degree of resistance to extinction
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. The number of nonreinforced responses varies around a predetermined average.
In a fixed-interval
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
In a variable-interval (VI) schedule
he reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. The interval length varies around a predetermined average
Positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
escape learning,
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
In avoidance learning,
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring.
Punishment occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response.
issues related to punishment as a disciplinary Procedure.
The main concern is that spanking and other forms of corporal punishment may produce many unintended and undesirable side effects. Studies generally find that corporal punishment is associated with elevated aggression and behavioral problems in youngsters
What is the theoretical significance of this unique readiness to make connections between taste and nausea?
Garcia argues that it is a by-product of the evolutionary history of mammals. Animals that consume poisonous foods and survive must learn not to repeat their mistakes. Natural selection will favor organisms that quickly learn what not to eat. Thus, evolution may have biologically programmed some organisms to learn certain types of associations more easily than other types.
Observational learning
-Observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. -observational learning involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning
identified four key processes that are crucial in observational learning. The first two—attention and retention—highlight the importance of cognition in this type of learning:
To learn through observation, you must pay attention to another person’s behavior and its consequences.
You may not have occasion to use an observed response for weeks, months, or even years. Thus, you must store a mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory.
Enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior.
Finally, you are unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless you are motivated to do so. Your motivation depends on whether you encounter a situation in which you believe the response is likely to pay off for you.
andera’s research on TV models and aggression.
Bandura found that children would behave most aggressively towards a doll when shown a recording of the doll being treated aggressively by someone of the same gender. His study was important in the understanding of how violent media can affect people
two unifying themes highlighted in this chapter.
nature and nurture interactively govern behavior, and dense interconnections exist between psychology and events in the world at large.
Recognize how classical conditioning is used to manipulate emotions
Behavior modification is a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning. Advocates of behavior modification assume that behavior is mainly a product of learning, conditioning, and environmental control. They further assume that what is learned can be unlearned. Thus, they set out to “recondition” people to produce more desirable and effective patterns of behavior.
Clarify the role of attention and multitasking:
The role of attention is to focuses awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. The role of Multitasking is to quickly swap your attention back and forth between tasks. This is because humans are not able to actually multitask but instead “juggle” what they are doing.
Understand how flashbulb memories change over time:
Flashbulb memories start to become less accurate and detailed over.
What is a flashbulb memory
A highly detailed "snapshot" about a socking or surprising event in your past
Discuss the capacity of short-term memory:
The Short-term memory has a limited capacity storage that can remember information for up to around 20 seconds.
Explain the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon and understand how context cues can influence retrieval:
tip-of-the-tongue phenomena is the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling it is out of reach. It is a common experience that happens around once a week and gets more common with age. Context cues can influence retrieval because they might be related to the thing you are thinking of.
retrieval cues
stimuli that help gain access to memories, such as hints, related information, or partial recollections.
Summarize research on the reconstructive nature of memory, apply the concept of everyday memory errors:
There have been many studies on the reconstructive nature of memory that have found out that it is not reliable as people add in details that did not occur. Everyday memory errors might include when remembering yourself doing something, your facial expression could be neutral in your memory when in actuality you were smiling or frowning.
Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve:
The forgetting curve graphs retention and forgetting over time. In other words, If you spend all night studying, the next day you will have forgotten a good chunk of what you studied.
Summarize evidence on the controversy regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse:
Basically, there was a surge of people saying that they recovered memories of being sexually abused when they were Children. The controversy comes mainly from the misinformation effect which is false memories are created. This allows for a daughter to accuse her father of getting her pregnant when she was younger even though she was a virgin and he had a vasectomy many years ago.
Retrograde amnesia:
A person who loses memories for events that occurred prior to an injury to the noggin
Anterograde amnesia:
A person who loses memories from events that occurs after injuries to the place where there big brain is.
Identify the three unifying themes highlighted in this chapter 7
Subjectivity of Experience Theoretical Diversity Multifactorial Causation
Discuss the importance of distributed practice in efforts to improve everyday memory
distributed practice is important because it is more beneficial to give yourself time between study sessions instead of cramming because it allows you to absorb information better
Understand how hindsight bias and overconfidence contribute to the frequent inaccuracy of eyewitness testimony:
Hindsight bias and overconfidence contribute to inaccuracy of eyewitness testimonies because of how they compliment each other. Hindsight bias can mold you interpretation of past event to fit how the events actually turned out leading to inaccurate memories. Overconfidence on the other hand makes you confident in your memory which in turn leads to Overconfident eyewitness testimonies that are incorrect.
Hindsight bias
is the tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.