our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment. (hard to define because without it, we are nothing)
Based on evolutionary psychologists why do we have a consciousness?
Consciousness offers a reproductive advantage. Consciousness helps us cope with novel situations and act in our long-term interests, rather than merely seeking short-term pleasure and avoiding pain. Consciousness also promotes our survival by anticipating how we seem to others and helping us read their minds: "He looks really angry! I'd better run!"
what are some conscious states that occur spontaneously?
Daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming
what are some physiologically induced consciousness?
hallucination, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation.
what are some psychologically induced consciousness?
sensory deprivation, hypnosis, medication
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition( including perception, thinking, memory, and language). relating specific brain states to conscious experiences.
what happens when you tell a noncommunicative patient (for example, a 23 year old woman who had been in a car accident and showed no signs of conscious awareness) to imagine playing tennis?
FMRI scans would reveal activity in a brain area that normally control arm and leg movements. Even in a motionless body, researchers concluded the brain in the mind may still be active.
what do conscious experience arise from?
conscious experience arises from synchronize activate across the brain. If a stimulus activates enough brain wide coordinated neural activity- as strong signals in one brain area trigger activity elsewhere- it crosses a threshold for consciousness.
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. (our awareness focuses, like a flashlight beam, on a minute aspect of all that we experience)
cocktail party effect
your ability to attend to one voice among a sea of others.
what are the two principles of the cocktail party effect?
1. We are good at filtering out noise, and paying attention to who we’re listening to.
2. Our own name and provocative words can pull our attention away (such as danger and controversy)
failing to see visible options when our intention is directed elsewhere (regarding the photo, view, where is who were attending to basketball tosses among the black, shredded players, usually failed to notice the umbrella-toting women sauntering across the screen)
failing to notice changes in the environment; a form of an intentional blindness (in laboratory experiments, viewers failed to notice that after a brief visual interruption, a big Coke bottle had disappeared, railing had risen, clothing change colors- and construction workers had changed places)
Explain three attentional principles that magicians may use to fool us.
Our selective attention allows us to focus on only a limited portion of our surroundings. Inattentional blindness explains why we don't perceive some things when we are distracted. And change blindness happens when we fail to notice a relatively unimportant change in our environment. All three principles help magicians fool us, as they direct our attention elsewhere to perform their tricks.
The principle of that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Perception, memory, thinking language, and attitudes all operate on two levels- a conscious deliberate “high road” and an unconscious, automatic “low road”. The high road is reflective, the low road intuitive.
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it. (a blind sight patient can walk through a cluttered hallway and avoid any obstacles.) This is evidence of the two-track mind
processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; generally used to process well-learned information or to solve easy problems
processing one aspect of a problem at a time; generally used to process new information or to solve difficult problems. (unconscious parallel processing is faster than conscious sequential processing, but both are essential.)
Failure to see visible objects because our attention is occupied elsewhere is called _______ _________
We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of ________ processing. When we devote deliberate attention to stimuli, we use ________ processing.
Inattentional blindness is a product of our ______ attention.
What are the mind's two tracks, and what is dual processing?
Our mind simultaneously processes information on a conscious track and an unconscious track (dual processing) as we organize and interpret information.
A periodic natural loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness, resulting from a coma, general anesthesia or hibernation.
are the following statements true or false?
1. When people dream of performing some activity, their limbs often move in concert
with the dream.
2. Older adults sleep more than young adults.
3. Sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams.
4. Sleep experts recommend treating insomnia with an occasional sleeping pill.
5. Some people dream every night; others seldom dream.
our biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24 hour cycle
what can alter our circadian rhythm?
age and experience
The human sleep cycle repeats itself every:
rapid eye movement sleep; a reoccurring sleep stage, during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
why do we yawn?
We yawn in response to reduced brain metabolism, yawning is socially contagious, and it stretches your neck muscles and increases your heart rate which increases your alertness.
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
NREM-1 (stage 1)
NREM-1 sleep is the first sleep stage you enter when nodding off. This sleep stage is when heartbeat, eye movements, brain waves, and breathing activity begin to taper down. (lasts 10 minutes and you may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations)
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
NREM-2 (stage 2)
After stage 1, you then relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of NREM-2 sleep, with its periodic sleep spindles- bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity. Although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty, you are now clearly asleep.
NREM-3 (stage 3 and 4)
Transition to deep sleep, during the slow wave sleep, which lasts about 30 minutes, your brain emits large, slow delta waves, and you are hard to waken
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
What brain waves accompany NREM-1?
What brain waves accompany NREM-2?
what brain waves accompany sleep stage 3 and 4?
what happens after an hour after you first fall asleep.
rather than continuing in deep slumber, you ascend from your initial sleep dive, returning through NREM-2 (where are you ultimately spend about half your night), you enter the most intriguing of the four sleep phases, REM sleep.
how do we tell that we are having dreams while sleeping?
your heart rate rises your breathing becomes rapid and irregular and every half minute or so your closed eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity.
what happened to your genitals during REM sleep?
Except during very scary dreams, your genitals become aroused during REM sleep. You have an erection or increased vaginal lubrication and clitoral engorgement, regardless of whether the dream's content is sexual. Men's common "morning erection" stems from the night's last REM period, often just before waking.
In young men, sleep-related erections outlast REM periods, lasting 30 to 45 minutes on average
why don’t you move during REM sleep?
During REM sleep, your brain's motor cortex is active, but your brainstem blocks its messages. This leaves your muscles relaxed, so much so that, except for an occasional finger, toe, or facial twitch, you are essentially paralyzed. Moreover, you cannot easily be awakened. (This immobility may occasionally linger as you awaken from REM sleep, producing a disturbing experience of sleep paralysis
when do we have the most vivid dreams?
Why would communal sleeping provide added protection for those whose safety depends upon vigilance, such as soldiers?
With each soldier cycling through the sleep stages independently, it is very likely that at any given time at least one will be in an easily awakened stage in the event of a threat.
What are the four sleep stages, and in what order do we normally travel through those stages?
REM, NREM-1, NREM-2, NREM-3; normally we move through NREM-1, then NREM-2, then NREM-3, then back up through NREM-2 before we experience REM sleep.
Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “story-like dream”
Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “fleeting images”
Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “minimal awareness”
sleep patterns are _____ and ______ influenced
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness.
What disrupts our 24-hour biological clock?
Being bathed in (or deprived of) light disrupts our 24-hour biological clock. Night-shift workers may experience a chronic state of desynchronization.
why does our phones help us not sleep?
phones emit artificial light that disrupts our melatonin production
The __________ nucleus helps monitor the brain’s release of melatonin, which affects our _______ rhythm
How does sleep protect?
When darkness shut down the day's hunting, gathering, and travel, our distant ancestors were better off asleep in a cave, out of harm's way. Those who didn't wander around dark cliffs were more likely to leave descendants. This fits a broader principle: A species' sleep pattern tends to suit its ecological niche. Animals with the greatest need to graze and the least ability to hide tend to sleep less. Animals also sleep less, with no ill effects, during times of mating and migration
how does sleep help us recuperate?
Sleep helps restore the immune system and repair brain tissue. Sleep gives resting neurons time to repair themselves, while pruning or weakening unused connections. Bats and other animals with high waking metabolism burn a lot of calories, producing free radicals, molecules that are toxic to neurons. Sleep sweeps away this toxic waste. Think of it this way: When consciousness leaves your house, workers come in to clean, saying "Good night. Sleep tidy."
How does sleep help restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day’s experiences?
To sleep is to strengthen. Sleep consolidates our memories by replaying recent learning and strengthening neural connections. It reactivates recent experiences stored in the hippocampus and shifts them for permanent storage elsewhere in the cortex. Adults, children, and infants trained to perform tasks therefore recall them better after a night's sleep, or even after a short nap, than after several hours awake. Sleep, it seems, strengthens memories in a way that being awake does not.
How does sleep feed creative thinking?
Dreams can inspire noteworthy artistic and scientific achievements. After working on a task, then sleeping on it, people solve difficult problems more insightfully than do those who stay awake. They also are better at spotting connections among novel pieces. To think smart and see connections, it often pays to ponder a problem just before bed and then sleep on it.
how does sleep support growth?
During slow-wave sleep, which occurs mostly in the first half of a night's sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone that is necessary for muscle development.
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into rem sleep often at an inopportune time.
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep in repeated momentary awakenings.
A sleep disorder, characterized by high arousal and in appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or theee hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. (usually occurring mostly in children)
what are the effects of insomnia?
Chronic tiredness. Reliance on sleeping pills and alcohol, which reduce REM sleep and lead to tolerance--a state in which increasing doses are needed to produce an effect.
what are the effects of narcolepsy?
Narcolepsy attacks usually last less than 5 minutes, but they can happen at the worst and most emotional times. Everyday activities, such as driving, require extra caution.
what are the effects of sleep apnea?
Fatigue and depression (as a result of slow-wave sleep deprivation). Associated with obesity (especially among men).
what are the effects of night terrors?
Doubling of a child's heart and breathing rates during the attack. Luckily, children remember little or nothing of the fearful event the next day. As people age, night terrors become more and more rare.
A well rested person would be more likely to have _______(trouble concentrating/quick reaction times) and a sleep-deprived person would be more likely to _______ (gain weight/fight off a cold).
quick reaction times; gain weight
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
More commonly, a dream's story line incorporates traces of previous days' ____________ ____________ and ____________.
nonsexual experiences and preoccupations
How can a stimuli (like a phone ringing) be incorporated in your dream?
Our two track mind continues to monitor our environment while we sleep: sensory stimuli- phone ringing or an odor - may be instantly and ingeniously woven into the dream story
Explain why we dream “to satisfy our own wishes”
He [Freud] proposed that dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings. He viewed a dream's manifest content (the apparent and remembered story line) as a censored, symbolic version of its latent content, the unconscious drives and wishes (often erotic) that would be threatening if expressed directly. Thus, a gun might be a disguised representation of a penis.
Freud considered dreams the key to understanding our inner conflicts.
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)
Explain why we dream “to file away memories”
The information-processing perspective proposes that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our memory. Some studies support this view. When tested the day after learning a task, those who had been deprived of both slow-wave and REM sleep did not do as well as those who had slept undisturbed
Explain why we dream “to develop and preserve neural pathways”
REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation. This theory makes developmental sense. Stimulating experiences preserve and expand the brain's neural pathways. Infants, whose neural networks are fast developing, spend much of their abundant sleep time in REM sleep
Explain why we dream “to reflect cognitive development”
Some dream researchers prefer to see dreams as part of brain maturation and cognitive development
Explain the dream theory “Freuds wish-fulfillment”
Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve" -expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content (a hidden meaning).
Explain the dream theory “information-processing”
Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories.
explain the dream theory “physiological function”
Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways.
explain the dream theory “activation synthesis”
REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories.
explain the dream theory “cognitive development”
Dream content reflects dreamers' level of cognitive development--their knowledge and understanding. Dreams simulate our lives, including worst-case scenarios.
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. Most other mammals also experience REM rebound, suggesting that the causes and functions of REM sleep are deeply biological.
Our body temperature tends to rise and fall in sync with a biological clock, which is referred to as _______ _______.
During the NREM-1 sleep stage, a person is most likely to experience
a. sleep spindles.
c. night terrors or nightmares.
d. rapid eye movements.
The brain emits large, slow delta waves during _______ sleep.
As the night progresses, what happens to the REM stage of sleep?
it increases in duration
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons that have been proposed to explain why we need sleep?
a. Sleep has survival value.
b. Sleep helps us recuperate.
c. Sleep rests the eyes.
d. Sleep plays a role in the growth process.
c. Sleep rests the eyes
What’s the difference between narcolepsy and sleep apnea?
With narcolepsy, the person periodically falls directly into REM sleep, with no warning; with sleep apnea, the person repeatedly awakens during the night.
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
substance use disorder
A disorder characterized by continued substance craving and use, despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk
The diminishing effect regularly use of the same dose of a drug requiring the users to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs affect
The discomfort and distress that follow what is continuing in addictive, drug or behavior
Caused by ever-increasing doses of most psychoactive drugs (including prescription painkillers). Prompts user to crave the drug, to continue use despite adverse consequences, and to struggle when attempting to withdraw from it. These behaviors suggest a substance use disorder. Once in the grip of addiction, people want the drug more than they like the drug.
An alcohol or drug relapse is the recurrence of any disease that has gone into remission or recovery.
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
alcohol use disorder
(popularly known as alcoholism) alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdraw, and a drive to continue problematic use
what can alcohol do to you?
It can slow neural processing (drunk driving accidents happen because it causes our reactions to slow and our skill performance to deteriorate), it disrupts memory (heavy drinking results in long-term effects on the brain and cognition), it reduces self awareness and self control, it has expectancy effects( simply believing we are consuming alcohol, can cause us at our alcohols presumed influence)
drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety, but impairing memory and judgment. (Barbiturates such as Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety.)
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; depress neural activity to rarely lessening, pain and anxiety.When repeatedly flooded with an artificial opiate, the brain eventually stops producing endorphins, its own opiates
Can someone become "addicted" to shopping?
unless it becomes compulsive or dysfunctional, simply having a strong interest in Shopping is not the same as having a physical addiction to a drug. It’s typically does not involve obsessive craving in spite of known negative consequences.
Alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates are all in a class of drugs called _______.
drugs (such as caffeine and nicotine, and the more powerful cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
stimulating and highly addictive, psychoactive drug in tobacco (includes cigarettes cigars,Tabaco, pipe tobacco, snuff, and E-
What withdrawal symptoms should your friend expect when she finally decides to quit smoking?
Nicotine-withdrawal symptoms include strong cravings, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, distractibility, and difficulty concentrating. However, if your friend sticks with it, the craving and withdrawal symptoms will gradually dissipate over about six months.
A powerful and addictive stimulant derive from the coca plant; temporary increase alertness, and euphoria.
how does cocaine work?
It enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoria that depletes the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Within the hour, a crash of agitated depression follows as the drug's effect wears off. After several hours, the craving for more wanes, only to return several days later
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes; overtime appears to reduce base line dopamine levels.
how does methamphetamine work?
it triggers the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells that enhance energy and mood leading to eight hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria
A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term, health risks, and longer term harm to serotonin- producing neurons and to mood and cognition
how does ecstasy work?
Ecstasy triggers dopamine release, but its major effect is releasing stored serotonin and blocking. It’s reuptake thus prolonging serotonin’s feel-good flood.
psychedelic (“ mind manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distorted perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (Some, such as LSD and MDMA (Ecstasy), are synthetic. Others, including the mild hallucinogen marijuana, are natural substances.)
what happens to your visual cortex when you take LSD?
Brain scans on people on an LSD trip revealed that there a visual cortex becomes hyper sensitive and strongly connected to their brains emotion centers.
near- death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucination
how do people describe near death experiences looking like?
many describe visions of tunnels, bright lights, or beings of light, a replay of old memories, and out of body sensations.
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid. trips vary from euphoria to detachment to panic.
The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
what makes marijuana and alcohol different?
The body eliminates alcohol within hours. THC and its by-products linger in the body for more than a week, which means that regular users experience less abrupt withdrawal and may achieve a high with smaller-than-usual drug amounts. This is the opposite of typical tolerance, in which repeat users need larger doses to feel the same effect.
Based on the drugs in this section, which ones are depressants?
alcohol and heroin
based on the drugs in the section which ones are stimulants?
caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy
based on the drugs in this section, which ones are hallucinogens?
Ecstasy, LSD marijuana
"How strange would appear to be this thing that men call pleasure! And how curiously it is related to what is thought to be its opposite, pain! ... Wherever the one is found, the other follows up behind." -Plato, Phaedo, fourth century B.C.E.
How does this pleasure-pain description apply to the repeated use of psychoactive drugs?
Psychoactive drugs create pleasure by altering brain chemistry. With repeated use of the drug, the user develops tolerance and needs more of the drug to achieve the desired effect. (Marijuana is an exception) Discontinuing use of the substance then produces painful or psychologically unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
what are the biological influences on disordered drug use?
some people may be biologically vulnerable to particular drugs. For example, if one identical, twin has an alcohol use disorder, then it is more likely for the other twin to get one too
what are the psychological influences of drug use ?
many heavy users of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine have experience, significant stress or failure, and are depressed. By temporary darling, the pain of self-awareness psychoactive drugs may offer a way to avoid coping with depression and anger, anxiety, or insomnia.
what are some socio-cultural influences of drug use?
adolescence expectations- what they believe friends are doing in favoring influence their behavior. Also, difficult environments and cultural acceptance of drug use.
why do tobacco companies try so hard to get customers hooked as teens?
Nicotine is powerfully addictive, and those who start paving the neural pathways when young may find it very hard to stop using it. As a result, tobacco companies may have lifelong customers. Moreover, evidence suggests that if cigarette manufacturers haven't hooked customers by early adulthood, they most likely won't.
Studies have found that people who begin drinking in their early teens are much more likely to develop alcohol use disorder than those who begin at age 21 or after. What possible explanations might there be for this correlation?
Possible explanations include (a) biological factors (a person could have a biological predisposition to both early use and later abuse, or alcohol use could modify a person's neural pathways); (b) psychological factors (early use could establish taste preferences for alcohol); and (c) social-cultural factors (early use could influence enduring habits, attitudes, activities, or peer relationships that could foster alcohol use disorder).
Why might alcohol make a person more helpful or more aggressive?
Alcohol is a disinhibitor-it makes us more likely to do what we would have done when sober, whether that is being helpful or being aggressive.
Long-term use of Ecstasy can
a. depress sympathetic nervous system activity.
b. deplete the brain's supply of epinephrine.
c. deplete the brain's supply of dopamine.
d. damage serotonin-producing neurons.
d. damage serotonin-producing neurons.
Near-death experiences are strikingly similar to the experiences evoked by ______
Use of marijuana
a. impairs motor coordination, perception, reaction time, and memory.
b. inhibits people's emotions.
c. leads to dehydration and overheating.
d. stimulates brain cell development.
impairs motor coordination, perception, reaction time, and memory.
An important psychological contributor to drug use is
a. inflated self-esteem.
b. the feeling that life is meaningless and directionless.
c. genetic predispositions.
d. overprotective parents.
b. the feeling that life is meaningless and directionless.
Sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus are called _________.
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of what stage?
What happens to periods of REM as we go through the night?
REM stages get longer
when do we have the most vivid dreams?
who spends the most time in REM?
babies and children
why is REM called paradoxic sleep?
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because it involves seemingly contradictory states of an active mind and a sleeping body.
Will our expectations of what we will experience when we take drugs or drink make a difference in when we experience?
yes, like the placebo effect, people will take fake cocaine, then go on a cocaine trip
A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. For example, a hypnotist can suggest to a patient that they will no longer find smoking pleasurable.
what are the two main theories to why hypnosis works?
social influence theory- in this view, hypnotize people, like actors, caught up in a role, begin to feel and behave in ways appropriate for “good hypnotic subjects“. They may allow the hypnotist to direct attention and fantasies away from pain.
dissociation theory- that hypnosis is a special dual processing state of disassociation. this theory seeks to explain why, when no one is watching, previously hypnotize people may carry out post hypnotic suggestions
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
A suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to have control undesired symptoms and behaviors "when I snap my fingers, you will think cigarettes are disgusting"
refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized.
What kind of people respond best to hypnosis?
Most people can get hypnotized, especially if the subject has a rich fantasy life.