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gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs
What does the digestive system consist of
Blastula
Stage of development where digestive system is made - many cells fold in on itself - fold gets bigger until it goes through it - the hole is called an endoderm - hole is surrounded by mesoderm
Protosome
Mouth is made first
Deuterostomes
Anus is made first - humans -Mouth made second
Peritoneum
Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity - largest serous membrane in body - simple squamous - contains folds = mesenteries
Parietal peritoneum
Outer layer lining that touches wall
visceral peritoneum
Inner lining that covers organs
Mesentery
a fused double sheets of the peritoneal membrane - stabilize position of organs & BV's - provide attachment for BV's
Mesentery proper
binds jejunum and ileum to posterior abdominal wall - holds small intestine to body wall
Mesocolon
binds transverse colon and sigmoid colon to posterior abdominal wall - holds large intestine to body cavity
Greater Omentum
Drapes over transverse colon & small intestine Largest mesentery Fatty apron
lesser omentum
Connects the stomach and duodenum to the liver - contains major blood vessels, bile & lymph structure - hepatic portal vein
intraperitoneal
Digestive organs are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum
Retroperitoneal
Organs lie against the posterior abdominal wall - kidney
Mucosa
inner lining of digestive tract - epithelium - Lamina propria - only place inbody where this CT is found - makes mucus
Submucosa
dense irregular connective tissue Glands that secrete acid, BV & nerve plexus
Muscularis
smooth muscle that helps more food -Inner circular layer & outer longitudinal layer
Serosa
visceral peritoneum - layer of serous membrane attached to organ. - NOT FOUND IN: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, OR rectum
Inner circular
Pushing food along
outer longitudinal
Smooshing
processing food Food β†’ macros
What is the primary function of the digestive system
1. Ingestion - swallowing food 2. Digesting-Chem (enzymes cut food smaller) vs mech (teeth ) 3. Absorption - large & small intestine absorbing nutrients 4. Elimination- waste leaving body
What are the steps of food processing
oral cavity
mouth Cheeks form the lateral walls - lined by stratified squamous epic - lips - muscles
Start of mech & chem digestion bolus forms when we swallow good Bonus = food & saliva
Oral cavity primary function
soft and hard palate uvula tongue mouth cheeks teeth lips muscles
What does the oral cavity consist of
Palate
roof of the mouth Hard & soft
Uvula
CT from soft palate - closes off nasopharynx while swallowing - gag reflex
Tongue
Skeletal muscle, held down by the lingual frenulum
Chewing, gestation, and speech
Tongue primary function
Teeth
20 deciduous (baby) & 32 adult
Periodontal ligament
Anchors tooth to the bone
Incisors - scraping Cuspids (canines)- hold food in place Bicuspids (premolars) - transitional teeth both canines and molars Molars- grinding of food
What are the types of teeth and function
Amylase
Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starches
parotid
Biggest gland over the masseter muscle
Submandibular
salivary gland under mandible
Sublingual
salivary gland under the tongue
Deglutition (swallowing)
Passing something from mouth the pharynx & into esophagus Bonus moves through esophagus via peristalsis
Peristalsis
Rhythmic contract/relax of GI tract muscle - moves food - smooth muscle - happens in esophagus, stomach, large/small intestine -Slowly - I secs from esophagus to stomach
Esophagus
Collapsible, muscular Connects oral cavity to stomach posterior to trachea Start of peristalsis
gastroesophageal sphincter
Stomach & esophagus sphincter - regulate and control the rate of food going into stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
long term condition in which stomach acid goes into esophagus ● Acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth ● Risk Factors: obesity, smoking, pregnancy, LES isn't functioning
stomach
Primary function - chem (cut protein) & mech digest Secondary function- food storage, protein digestion (starts in mouth), hormone production that signals how full we are and for acid to be made Tertiary function Absorption SOME H2O SOME meds ex aspirin Alcohol Caffeine mucosal layer has goblet cells
Chyme
Food (bolus) mixed with acid
Oblique
Innermost layer - churns food inside stomach
cardia
Transition from esophagus to stomach
Fundus
most superior part of the stomach Helps with expansion
Body
largest region of the stomach Churning happens
Pylorus
Most inferior region of stomach
gastroesophageal sphincter
Controls rate of food entering body
Greater curvature
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rugae of stomach
Expansion
pyloric sphincter
Between stomach and small intestine
slow and controlled I tsp at a time Empties in 2-6hrs
How fast does the stomach empty slow an
Acid + digestive juice, gastric glands
Stomach structures?
Gastric glands
Inside of mucosa gastric pits Make mucus or acid Secretory cells
Vomiting
involuntary & forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach ● Mouth or nose :( burns bc or acid ● Risk factors: Motion sickness, head trauma, food poisoning, overeating, gastritis, drugs, stress ● Treatment: Medication, waiting it out, staying hydrated
Small intestine
Between stomach & large intestine 18-20 ft - 1.5 - 2.5in diameter - feeds with villi that contain microvilli - nutrients absorbed by touching
Digestion & absorption of nutrients
Primary function of small intestine
SI absorption
BVs for sugars & amino acids - lacteals for large macros - eventually back general circulation
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine
Duodenum
first 10-13in segment of small intestine ● Chyme from stomach + digestive secretions ● Common bile & pancreatic duct open into duodenumβ—‹ Hepatopancreatic ampulla sphincter -breaking down
Receive chyme from stomach Neutralize acids HCO3 - +H+ β†’ H2O + CO2
Duodenum functions
jejunum
Middle segment of small intestine Approx. 8ft Chem digestion Nutrient absorption
Ileum
The final segment of the small intestine Approx. 12ft ileocecal valve cleaning
Segmentation si digestion
Mixing of food stuffs+ digestive secretions No net movement -Pushes back and forth to mix then pushes β†’ with peristalisis
Liver
largest organ of the body Located under diaphragm Can regenerate Primary function: detox
Falciform ligament
Attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall & diaphragm
hepatic portal system
connects the digestive tract and liver - specialized venous blood pathway - from GI tract β†’ liver β†’ heart - nutrient rich / O2 poor - stomach, small intestine, pancreas, and spleen blood get together to form hepatic portal vein to dump blood into liver
Lobules
functional units of the liver
hepatocytes
liver cells Break down parasites A lot of rough/smooth ER and ribosomes
Kupffer cells
Immune system cells
hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, small bile duct
What makes up the portal triad
Hepatic sinusoid
Holds kupffer cells
Storage of Fe, vit: A, D, E, K, & BI2 Production of glycerol & amino acids→ glucose when hangry Cholesterol Bile - cuts down fat increases sa
Liver secondary function
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Gallbladder
Primary function: store bile Located under liver
gall stones
a stone formed within the gallbladder/bile duct ● Cholesterol / ↓ bile salts = stone ● Crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, or tea-colored urine ● Other acc. organs to become inflamed ● Risk Factors: estrogen + 40 years, weight, and diet hormonal birth control too ● Treatment: Diet change, Surgery or shock waves
Pancreas
Primary functions endo: make insulin and glucagon exo=pancreatic juices Located behind stomach
Lipase- lipids /fats Pancreatic amylase-starch Pancreatic trypsin -protein
What are the enzymes for all macros
Pancreatic juices
Contains sodium bicarb Bicarb protect small intestine from stomach acid b/c no mucus
Large intestine
Primary function: Last chance absorption & storage Located around the small intestine 4-5 ft long Approx 3in in diameter Absorb H2O and vitamins made by proks (B complex and K) K- help with blood clots I made by our E. coli
Feces
When it enter iliocecal value it becomes feces for 1st time 3/4 h20 & 1/4 undigested solids+ coliforms bilirubin processing+ oxidized iron = brown poop
Cecum
transitionary pouch that connects small to large intestine
Appendix
Lymph tissue
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix ●Caused by blockage ● Right/lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, & decreased appetite ● Sepsis- infection could happen by fecal matter getting stuck ● Treatment: Removal
Colon
Largest portion of LI
Ascend
Fecal matter goes up
Trans
Fecal matter goes on transverse plane
Descend
Fecal matter goes down
Sigmoid
S-shaped Leads feces into rectum
Haustra
Pouches for expansion - helps with abs and storage
taeniae coli
longitudinal bands of smooth muscle Helps with peristalsis of each pouch
Rectum
Last 20 cm of LI Storage area Internal sphincter = involuntary External sphincter = voluntary Both control the rate of fecal exiting body
Anal canal
Site of defecation Voluntary
lactose intolerance
- Only supposed to drink milk as babies inability to digest milk sugars (lactose) ● If no lactase enzyme = can't digest lactose ● Bacteria breakdown lactose anaerobically, producing gas, bloating, diarrhea ● Cheese & yogurt OK, heavy cream & butter too! (more milk fat=less milk sugar) ● Risk Factors: being an adult ● Treatment: Diet & lactase supplement
Excrete waste from proteins Urea & ammonium from AAs
Urinary system primary function
Water/salt (blood pressure) homeostasis BP measured in salt
Urinary system secondary function
Aldosterone
regulates salt and stress homeostasis increases blood vol and blood pressure -stimulated by low sodium concentration (after exercise), blood loss (low blood volume), or low blood pressure kidney reabsorption of Na+ & excretion of K+ NOT controlled by anterior pituitary
RAAS
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Renin -> RAAS hormone complex
Made from juxtaglomerular apparatus kidneys: constrict bvs = increased blood pressure Tells Adrenal glands to make: Aldo = increased salt retention
Non urinary function: blood ph
If pH low/acidic = too many H ions & secretion of buffers (bicarb ion) increase If pH high / too alkaline= increase excretions of buffers (bicarb ion) & secretion of H ion increase
Non urinary function: Erythropoefin
RBC homeostasis Target alls in bone marrow Hormone made in kidney
renal fascia of kidney,
dense irregular CT, anchors kidney to abdominal wall
Adipose capsule
Wedges kidneys in place medically Protects from physical trauma
Renal capsule
Thin layer of dense irregular CT Covers kidney Protects from infection & physical trauma
Kidneys
2 fist sized and bean shaped
hilum
Nerves & BVs Ureters attach
Renal cortex
outer region of the kidney
Renal medulla
middle layer of kidney
Renal columns
extensions of cortex in between pyramids
Renal pyramids
triangular-shaped structure of tissue in the medulla of the kidney Nephrons here
Minor calyx
first urine-draining structure
Major calyx
Two minor calyx come together Larger urine draning structure
renal pelvis
Largest urine draining structure Two major calyx come together Stretches and becomes ureter
Minor calyx β†’ major calyx β†’ renal pelvis β†’ ureter
Flow of urine
Blood supply to kidneys
-kidneys receive 20-25% of total cardiac output -1200 mL of blood flows through kidneys each minute -kidney receives blood through renal artery
Afferent arteriole
brings blood to the glomerulus Blood pressure measured here
efferent arteriole
carries blood away from the glomerulus
Peritubular capillaries
Around tubules
Nephron
functional unit of the kidney +1 mil per kidney - helps with filtration
Renal corpuscle
filters blood plasma - pulls out of glomerulus In renal cortex
Renal tubules
Modifies filtrate Finishing alteration Readsorption and secretion Most in cortex Some dip into medulla
L filtration starts from plasma being pulled into a nephron β†’ 2. What body needs gets reabsorbed from blood homeostasis : glucose H2O Na β†’ 3 what body doesn't need gets secreted from blood Main goal: make urine
Filtration within a nephron?
Cortical nephrons
Renal corpuscle in OUTER portion of cortex 80-85% of nephrons Short loops of Henle peritubular capillaries use often since we have H2O
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juxtamedullary nephrons
Renal corpuscle DEEP in cortex Long nephron loops Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta Helps concentrate urine
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1. Filtration - out of blood glomerular capsule, glomerulus 2. Reabsorption into blood - proximal convoluted tubule, collecting duct 3. Secretion - into nephron-distal convoluted tubule 4. Excretion-out of body- collecting duct
urine filtration steps
Glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)
Cup-shaped, hollow structure surrounding glomerulus
glomerulus
mass of capillaries w/in Glomerular capsule Leaky be so thin liquid leaks out
podocytes
Open and prop up glomerulus Blood plasma inside capillaries protects RBCs from coming in When same fluid leaves capillaries and enters bowman's space it is called filtrate/pre urine
proximal convoluted tubule
Reabsorption Simple cuboidal epi cells Micro villi increase SA Na reasorbed Secretes erythropoietin
juxtaglomerular apparatus
Helps regulate & measures blood pressure
Macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
What cells work together to form the juxtaglomerular apparatus
Macula densa
Have chemoreceptors for Na to monitor blood Levels w/ stretch reapers Made of efferent arterioles
juxtaglomerular cells
large, vascular smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole moniter BP Secrete renin - constricts afferent arterial to increase BP When BP low
Nephron loop
Descending limb- H2O reabsorption Ascending limb - only Na+ reabsorption
distal convoluted tubule
Helps with Ca++ -ADH & aldosterone - urine - target tissue for ADH & aldosterone
peritubular capillary
Around distal & proximal convoluted tubules
vasa recta
Straight vessel - parallel rung around loop of Henley
Collecting duct
H2O and urea Last chance for homeostasis of H, K -sensitive to ADH & Aldo
Ureters
Connects kidneys to urinary bladder Peristalsis 20-60 secs in spurts
Urinary bladder
stores urine 3 openings Smooth muscle for contractions rugae - expansion MAX IL
Micturittion
the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra ● bladder = + Β½ cup urine, stretch receptors send sensory impulses β†’ spinal cordGlo
urethra
● 4 cm vs 20cm β—‹ Pee after sex!!! ● Internal Sphincter = Involuntary ● External Sphincter = Voluntary
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
β€” an infection that affects part of the urinary tract ● Bladder = pain with urination, frequent urination, & need to urinate even w/ empty bladder ● Kidney infection = see above + fever and flank pain ● Risk Factors:short Urethra, having sex, diabetes, obesity, & family history