history midterm

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What is an artifact?
an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.
What are the differences between primary and secondary sources?
primary sources come first hand like a diary recording of yourself a secondary source is a newspaper about the diary.
Explain historical interpretation.
the process of finding the meaning or significance of historical events
What are the reasons to study history?
to learn new information and helps us have empathy for others, makes us better thinkers, helps avoid errors made in the past, and it is interesting
After historians collect evidence, their next step is to do what?
formulate a thesis statement
A secondary source is what?
a document or other record of past events created by someone who was not present during the events or the time period in which they occurred
When studying a historical event, what is the first step in a historian's process?
to do research
Why do historians establish a chronology or sequence of events in time?
So we know how the time relates to what you are studying and which events came first to influence other events
How does the study of history help people develop empathy?
History promotes awareness of problems, sorrows, joys, and hardships faced by people in other times and places. As that awareness grows, we have a greater opportunity to understand our own experiences—both good and bad.
Why is history worth studying?

because it makes us better thinkers and it helps us be more informed

How do we define governments that receive their "just powers" to rule from the "consent of the governed"?
How has the United States made progress in expanding equality since its founding?
it gave women the right to vote and gave african americans freedom of slavery
Define an ideal.
a principle or standard of perfection that a person or group consistently tries to achieve
How is America based on ideals?
-because the US government is based on ideas of limited government, including natural rights, popular sovereignty, republicanism, and social contract.
Why was the ideal of equality problematic in 1776?
because not everyone was equal
According to the Declaration of Independence, where does the government obtain its power from?
the people
What is a laissez-faire economic policy?
''hands-off'' less the government is involved, the better off business will be
A business organized as a corporation is owned by who?
What is a company called that completely dominates a particular industry?
What technology did Henry Ford use to mass-produce automobiles?
assembly line
What economic system are factories and other means of production privately owned
Why is Andrew Carnegie considered a philanthropist?
Because he donated lots of his money to charity
What revolutionary process transformed how iron was turned into steel?
bessemer process
Business strategy involves joining together many firms from the same industry.
horizontal integration
Why was the Sherman Antitrust Act unsuccessful at breaking up trusts and monopolies?
hard to interpret in courts
In the post-Civil War era, the United States evolved from what type of society into what other type of society?
agricultural society to industrial society
What factors led to the rise of big businesses and monopolies in the 1900s
New technologies like steam engines, railroads, and telegraphs made communication and transportation easier. The ability to source and transport materials across the country with ease turned many local businesses into national companies.
What did the Pullman Strike, Haymarket Affair, and Homestead Strike have in common?
they all turned violent and were not peaceful protests
What is a weapon used by labor unions when negotiations with business owners fail?
to go on stirke
What was significant about the Railroad Strike of 1877?
first time the national guard brought in for a protest
How did the government's response to labor unions differ from its response to factory owners when conflicts over labor conditions arose?
The government sided with factory owners during a union strike.
What act changed the course of what became known as the Haymarket Affair from a calm event to a violent event?
Bomb was thrown into the crowd
Explain the threats of living in tenements in the slums.
unsanitary conditions and disasters like fires could happen easily and spread fast
Upon arriving by ship in New York Harbor, what groups were required to go through immigration inspections at Ellis Island?
Immigrants in steerage
What group wanted to pass laws to decrease the number of immigrants coming to America?
What were some push factors during the Industrial revolution that made people want to leave Europe?
-poverty, food scarcity, unemployment, and lack of opportunities.
Describe the experience for immigrants living in steerage
cramped, smelled bad, diseases flourished lots of poor people, all wanted to be on deck to get fresh air
Why did Congress make it illegal for U.S. employers to hire contract laborers?
-so people in the U.S. could still get jobs and striking workers still had the power of a strike
What was life like in the United States for European immigrants?
-they were poor and got paid very low wages
What's a political boss?
powerful leaders who ran local politics in many cities, providing jobs and social services to immigrants in exchange for political support
How was Chinese immigration different from European immigration?
went to angel island instead of ellis island and they were treated worse and most could not speak english so they got even lower pay and went through harder tests to get into the U.S.
How did the immigration station at Angel Island differ from the one at Ellis Island?
Harder tests and immigrants were treated worse
What was the experience of Mexican immigrants that entered the United States from the South during the Industrial revolution time period?
there were a lot of them and they were escaping war from mexico
What are some of the "bread-and-butter" objectives of labor unions?
higher wages and better living conditions
How were politicians corrupt in the early 20th century?
They just wanted money and did not want to help people
Describe a party boss.
a boss is a person who controls a faction or local branch of a political party.
What did Upton Sinclair expose to readers with his 1906 novel "The Jungle"?
-the unsettling things done at meatpacking plants
In the early 1900s, many journalists wrote about America's social, political, and environmental problems, these journalists were called
Why did many children in the 1900s not attend school?
they had to work
Why did the arrival of industry spur rapid urbanization in America?
Because industrial factories required large workforces and workers and their families needed places to live near their jobs
n the early 1900s, what was a common problem for cities' fire protection infrastructure?
because roads and sidewalks were built out of wood
By the 1900s, how had industrialization greatly impacted the natural environment?
The pollution from the factors harmed the air and they had to cut down trees by burning them down to make room for factories
A political machine was an organization of politicians that did what?
organizations linked to a political party that often controlled local government.
What was the purpose of the Pendleton Act?
to reform the civil service system
Why did many immigrants live in ethnic neighborhoods?
To keep culture alive and so they could belong somewhere
Why did many African Americans migrate to urban cities in the late 1800s?
Because they needed jobs after slavery was abolished
How did the role of women in the labor force change around the late 1800s?
They got more involved after men where going off to fight so they took over jobs and got better opportunities
What idea did progressives reject arguing instead that domination by the rich and powerful was a distortion of democracy?
social darwinism because monopolies were not natural
As child labor declined during the second half of the 19th century, how did compulsory (or required by law) education change?
school started to become mandatory and more kids went to school and it started to become free
Why did many progressives argue that a separate court system was necessary for juveniles?
-because they were still kids and should not be tried as adults
List some ways progressives improved conditions in the workplace.
enacted minimum wage laws for women workers, instituted industrial accident insurance, restricted child labor, and improved factory regulation.
journalist Lincoln Steffens was considered a what?
Muckraker and made newspaper actually interesting to read because he was an investigative journalist
Why was the right to vote so important to many of the women at the Seneca Falls Convention?
a right given to "the most ignorant and degraded men"—they were forced to submit to laws to which they did not consent and half the population could not vote
Which progressive reform allows citizens of a state to propose and pass a law without involving their state legislature?
direct intiative
What power did the referendum provide to voters?
voters had the final say on whether or not a state law would be passed
Which election reform did progressives advocate in order to return power to the people?
direct primary
What progressive reforms were enacted by a constitutional amendment?

authorized an income tax, provided for the direct election of senators, prohibition of alcohol and the right for women to vote with the 16th, 17th 18th and 19th amendments

Which progressive president's policy was the "square deal?"
theodore roosevelt
How did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson work to protect the environment?
Through national parks
Why did President Theodore Roosevelt support Taft as his successor?
Because he has the same ideas as teddy
Why did President Wilson establish the Federal Reserve System?
to improve the flow of money and credit throughout the United States in an effort to ensure that banks had the resources to meet the needs of their customers in all parts of the country.
What action ruined Taft's reputation as a progressive?
he signed a bill to increase tariffs
What effect did the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 have on medicine manufacturers?
it made food and drugs more safe and made them put what was in their products
In addition to the Pure Food and Drug Act, what other laws were put in place to protect people?
Child labor laws
Who were the advocates of prohibition?
Protestant churches and the Women's Christian Temperance Union
What argument finally convinced President Wilson to accept women's suffrage?
because they did all the jobs men did while they were fighting so they should be able to be given the right to vote
What is one reason why Roosevelt's support of Taft diminished after Taft became president?
because he did not really protect land and raised taxes not acting like a progressive president
Which foreign policy tool did the U.S. government use to acquire Oregon Territory from Great Britain?
contental expansion
What prompted the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain?
Britain's interference with its trade and impressment of its seamen; Americans' desire to expand settlement into Indian, British, and Spanish territories; aspirations to conquer Canada and end British influence in North America
the belief that values and morals should shape foreign policy is called what?
What twin policies did President Monroe incorporate into the Monroe Doctrine in 1823?
Realism and idealism
Why did realists support territorial expansion in the 1800s?
Because it fulfilled the moral and belief of manifest destiny
What provoked the war between the United States and Mexico in the mid-1800s?
Land the mexican cessions
What was an argument used in support of imperialism for the United States?
the financial gain to be had by giving American businesses access to colonial resources and markets.
When war broke out between France and Great Britain in 1793, the United States adopted what type of policy?
What did the rallying cry of "Fifty-four forty or fight" refer to?
For the oregon territory because we wanted it
What was the result of the Mexican War?
Mexico ceded a huge region between California and Texas
With the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in 1803, what was the new goal for U.S. foreign policy?
To expand with land
The belief that relations with other countries should be guided by national self-interest is called what?
What were the MAIN causes of WWI?
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Which movement during WWI included women, former populists, and Midwest progressives?
peace movement
Which movement during WWI had business ties to Allied countries and wanted to come to the aid of the allies?
preparedness movement
Who was the President who signed Congress's war resolution on April 6, 1917?
Woodrow wilson
Which countries were the allies in WWI?
The Russian Empire, United Kingdom, Italy, France; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
What was the name of the ship that the Germans sunk killing over 100 American passengers and pulling them into the war?
What years did WWI last?
What treaty ended WWI?
Treaty of Versailles
Which countries were the central powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire