AP Psych- Unit 6

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63 Terms
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the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning
the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
neutral stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response (UR).
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
higher-order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
discriminitive stimulus
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer
reinforcement schedule
a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
continous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
a sudden realization of a problem's solution
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
problem-focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
internal locus of control
the perception that you control your own fate
the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards
observational learning
learning by observing others; also called social learning
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
Ivan Pavlov
discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a tone
John B. Watson
behaviorism; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
B.F. Skinner
reinforcement; operant chamber (Skinner Box); elaborated Thorndike's law of effect
Edward Thorndike
law of effect
John Garcia
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
Robert Rescorla
researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
Edward Tolman
researched rats' use of "cognitive maps" and latent learning
Albert Bandura
Bobo doll experiment; by watching a model, we experience vicarious punishment or vicarious reinforcement, and we learn to anticipate a behavior's consequences in situations like those we are observing