Unit 2

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Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
nerves (not brain and spinal cord)
Surface area to volume ratio
- increase means more efficiency with greater exchange of materials
- bumps on brain
- gaps between the bumps on brain
Frontal lobe
- voluntary movements - Speech production - high level executive functions - Reasoning + problem solving - Happiness
Motor cortex
- small sliver on posterior end of frontal lobe - controls voluntary movement
Parietal Lobe
- processes somatosensory info - integrates info - body sensations - taste
Somatic Sensory Cortex
- Anterior to parietal love - processes info from peripheral nervous system
Occipital Lobe
- visual perception (color, form, and motion)
Temporal Lobe
- process auditory info - encode memory - language understanding
- balance and motor functions
Brain stem
- automatic functions: breathing and blood pressure - midbrain (most superior) - pons (bulge) - medulla oblongata (stem)
Lymbic System
- hypothalamus, thalamus, olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus - behavioral and emotional response to outward and inward stimuli - thirst and hunger, happiness, smell
- recieve info from other neurons - send them to cell body
- take info away from the cell body
Axon terminal
- end of axon - send messages from the neuron to another body
Myelin Sheath
- Insulator around schwann cells that optimize transfer of electrical impulse along the neuron
Nodes of Ranvier
- gap between myelin sheath - helps to maximize transfer of electrical impulse along the axon
- Space between two neurons where neurotransmitters go between
- Chemical substance that transfers electrical signals between neurons
- 1 axon + many dendrites - mostly the CNS and efferent PNS
- 1 axon + 1 dendrite - retina of eye and the olfactory system
- one structure extending from cell body - mostly in invertebrates + efferent division of PNS of mammals
-area in inferior posterior portion of frontal lobe - responsible for speech production
- area superior posterior portion of temporal lobe - responsible for language understanding
Motor Neuron
- Efferent - sends messages from brain to spinal cord to the muscles and organs
Sensory Neuron
- Afferent - messages from receptions to the brain or spinal cord
- from sensory neuron to motor neuron - mostly in CNS
Towards the CNS
Away from the CNS
- single structure extending from soma - later branches into two instinct structures
Charges of Cell at resting potential
- positive exterior with more Na+ - negative interior with more K+
Charges at action potential
- Negative exterior - positive interior
Na+/K+ pump
- active transport - goes against concentration gradient - 3 Na+ and 2 K+
What causes the beginning of an action potential?
- opening of Na+ channels - Na+ will naturally move inside of cell w/ the concentration gradient. - Called depolarization
- outside becomes more positive than the cell cause k+ move out through the K+ channels that are now open - returns to correct charge but not correct ions - sodium potassium pump switches the ions to reestablish resting potential.
What happens to an action potential at the end of an axon?
- calcium ions (Ca2+) move into cell through voltage gated ion channels - neurotransmitters in presynaptic neuron are released by vesicles which were triggered to fuse with the cell membrane because of the Ca2+ - the neurotransmitters are caught by specific ligand gated receptors on the postsynaptic cell - this causes specific ion channels to open and begins depolarization in the receiving cells
Voltage Graph
- must pass threshold of -55 mV to start action potential - voltage spikes to 40 mV during depolarization (the action potential) - voltage decreases during repolarization - voltage dips below the resting state during hyperpolarization - voltage returns to resting state (-70 mV) after Na+/K+ pump fixes the substance concentrations
- brain not involved only reaches spinal cord
- brain is involved
Central Sulcus
The sulcus that divides the motor and sensory cortex
Multiple Schlerosis
- autoimmune - muscle weakness, loss of balance, and missing sensory info - body attacks myelin on the neuron
- genetic - motor, behavioral, and psychological - autosomal dominant - effects lymbic system
- affects nerve cells: motor neurons, brain stem, spinal cord, motor cortex, and anterior spinocerebellar tract. - specifically voluntary movement - Hereditary and sporadic
- rapid misfiring of neurons
- Affects entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, cerebral cortex - Amyloid and Tau build up in the brain and tangles - stops the production of acetylcholine
- CNS disease that affects movement - Affected Basal Ganglia - Dopamine creation is affected
Lymbic system functions
Hypothalamus: thirst and hunger Hippocampus: memory Amygdala: happiness & emotion