History 15-Spring 2022 Midterm 1 Study guide- Multiple Choice terms

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slavery extension
The westward expansion of slavery was one of the most dynamic economic and social processes going on in this country. The westward expansion carried slavery down into the Southwest, into Mississippi, Alabama, crossing the Mississippi River into Louisiana. Finally, by the 1840's, it was pouring into Texas.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Caning of Charles Sumner
An incident in which Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner was assaulted on the floor of the Senate by South Carolina congressman Preston S. Brooks over Sumner's accusation that a distant cousin of Brooks's had taken ''the harlot slavery'' as his mistress.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not viewed as citizens but as property
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
series of debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas over the issue of slavery
John Brown Raid
Raid on Harper's Ferry Armory. Brown wants to start a slave rebellion to end slavery.
Fort Sumter
The first shots of the Civil War were fired in South Carolina
Southern Succession
SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX seceded to form the Confederate States of America, with its new constitution guaranteeing citizens the right to own slaves
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Confederates advantages
Cotton production, first rate generals, strong military, and motivated soldiers
Confederates disadvantages
Weak Central Government, Financial Power, Power Struggle Internally, Ability to Sustain.
King Cotton Diplomacy
the South's political strategy during the Civil War; it depended upon British and French dependency on southern cotton to the extent that those two countries would help the South break the blockade
Union Advantages
1) bigger population 2)bigger weapon production 3) bigger railroad mileage 4) bigger factory production 5) bigger farm acreage
Union Disadvantages
- weak and inexperienced military leaders - had to move troops to the South
Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
First major battle of the Civil War, fought at a railroad junction in northern Virginia on July 21, 1861. The Union suffered a sobering defeat, while the Confederates felt affirmed in their superiority and the inevitability of Confederate nationhood.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Ulysess S. Grant
lead the Union army into invading western Tennessee, outstanding officer. General of the North
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
New military technology
Tanks, gas masks, airplanes, hand grenades, heavy aritllery, submarines, trench warfare.
Civil War death toll
over 600,000 360,000 union troops 260,000 confederate troops
54th Massachusetts Regiment
First African American Regimen, successfully defended Fort Wagner
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln on November 19th, 1863. This speech highlighted the reason our government existed, what the war was about, and what people had to do to protect our government
New York Drafts Riots
the anger of working-class New Yorkers over a new federal draft law during the Civil War sparked five days of some of the bloodiest and most destructive rioting in U.S. history.
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
A large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Appomattox Court House
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
1864 Presidential Election
Lincoln represented rep. McLennan represented dem. Lincoln reelected in electoral college. Won more than 400,000 popular votes due to unions victory at battle of Atlanta.
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
A bill passed by Congress in March 1866 as a measure against the Black Codes to reinforce black rights to citizenship. It was vetoed by Johnson and was later passed as the 14th Amendment.
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Rights of Citizens
15th Ammendment
gave blacks the right to vote
Tenure of Office Act
Required the president to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees.
Radical Reconstruction
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
Grant Scandals
There were a series of scandals during Grant's presidency that involved corruption and bribery on the part of Grant appointees. The scandals threatened to overshadow his presidency and tarnished his reputation.
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Depression of 1873
an economic crash that resulted from the overreaching of promoters to build more railroads, factories, and farms than the market could handle. The banks made imprudent loans to finance this and when profit was not realized, these loans went unpaid...Caused by over-speculation and too-easy credit.
land redistribution
a policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who have little or none
people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
John Rockefeller
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Jay Gould
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
J.P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Railroad Industry
One of the first industries to be regulated by the government because of its reputations of corrupt and manipulative owners
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Battle of Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Interstate Commerce Commission
an agency that sets the laws for all the companies that do business across state lines
American Federation of Labor
The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
Haymarket Square Bombing
Demonstration by union workers where a bomb went off killing or injuries dozens. This event hurt the labor movement and the Knights of Labor
Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Alexander Grahm Bell (1847-1922)
Invented the telephone
Transatlantic cable/telegraph
Is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic.
Brand Names
the portion of brands that can be expressed orally, including letters, words, or numbers
Department/ Chain Stores
department stores became core institutions which reassured Americans by their very existence that life was good
Mail Order Catalogs
Marketing strategy developed in late 1800's and early 1900's. Brought consumer products to rural areas. Example: Sears and Roebuck, Montgomery Ward.
Tall building with many floors supported by a lightweight steel frame.
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
New Immigrants
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
Boss William Tweed
Political "boss" in New York City that ran the Tammany Hall Ring until his arrest in 1871; though corrupt, he and other bosses brought structure and necessary services to communities.