the river gave them life -- Farmers relied on the floods to irrigate crops, protected by the Sahara desert that lies to the west
"The Gift of the Nile"
seasonal winds that bring tremendous amount of rainfall to the valley
an American neolithic peoples who planted corn and maize in warm and humid rainforests (modern Mexico) (1200 - 400 BCE). Rulers were believed to be half man and half god. Built huge cities, large palaces, temples, and pyramids of limestone.
located further to the south, developed in modern day Peru along the Andes Mountain range. (900 BCE - 200 BCE)
The Chavin capital, located at the intersection of trade routes connected valleys to the Andes mountains.
Chavin de Huantar
a domesticated beast of burden that helped the Chavin with chores.
The Chavin deity which impacted later Latin American societies
Olmec sculptures which probably symbolized the power of the elites.
"Giant Head" sculpture
The Olmec's writing system
did not allow trade, need to supply own goods
located in central China
unpredictable flooding (China’s Sorrow)
Huang He (Yellow River)
earliest civilization in South Asia found there
a tremendous peninsula sometimes referred to as a subcontinent, has 3 water borders: West-Arabian Sea; East- Bay of Bengal; South- Indian Ocean, and 2 protective mountain range borders
The Egyptian Civilization was centered around it, Settlement began around 5000 BC and the river flows north 4,100 miles
(innovations to control water supplies) and built mud walls around cities for protection
located in Modern Day Iraq
located between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.
The first states emerged within the core civilizations.
Core and Foundational Civilizations
communities that domesticated animals which provided stable sources of meat, milk, etc., but required mobility for water and grazing. The grazing needs of livestock altered the local landscape and reduced biodiversity.
raided and traded with sedentary communities in order to diversify their diets and acquire goods.
through laws, language, literature, religion, myths and monumental art.