Human Development- Adolscence to Adulthood to Working with Families

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What influences development?
Heredity, Nutrition, Environment, Exercise, Health and Medical Resources, and Social Economic Status
What are the 3 stages of Adolescence?
Younger, Middle, & Older Adolescence
When is Younger adolescence?
10-14 years old
When is Middle adolescence?
14-16 years old
When do boys have growth spurt peaks?
Around 13- 14 years old but continues at a slower rate
When do girls have growth spurt peaks?
Around 11-12 years old and slows around 16 years old
What is Myelination?
The process by which brain oligodendrocytes produce layers of myelin that wrap around the neuronal axons and act as a layer of insulation for the transmission of electric action potentials down the neuronal axon.
What is synaptic pruning?
Process in which the brain eliminates extra synapses. Synapses are brain structures that allows the neurons to transmit an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
What happens in the brain during adolscent development?
Brain growth, synaptic pruning, pre-frontal cortex development, surge in sex hormones, and more responsive excitatory input, and myelination
When does the pre-frontal cortex develop fully?
25 years old
What happens to the surge in sex hormones?
Increase responsiveness to social & emotional stimuli
What part of Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development does adolscence occur?
Formal Operations
What are the main features of formal operations?
Abstract reasoning, deductive logic, scientific reasoning, and self-consciousness
How much sleep does an adolscent need every night?
Around 10 hours
What happens to the adolscent family role in their development?
The role is conflicted
What is the importance of close friendships in adolscence?
Helps coping with stress, increased intimacy, boys: activity participation, & girls: emotional closeness
What are the advantages of sports?
College scholarships, Recognition from peers, & learning teamwork
What are the disadvantages of sports?
Time consuming and injury.
What IADLs do adolscents have?
paid employement, home chores, community activities
What is temporal discounting?
Individual's tendency to perceive a desired result in the future as less valuable than one in the present
What stage of Erikson Self-Identity is adolscence in?
Identity vs Role Confusion
What are the 3 stages of adulthood?
Young, Middle, & Late Adulthood
When is young adulthood?
21-40 years old
When is middle adulthood?
40-65 years old
Late adulthood
What happens in memory and cognition in middle adulthood?
Function is not negatively affected with the decrease of brain mass
What is crystalized intelligence?
Using previously learnt information to solve problems
What is fluid intelligence?
Learning new information
What is implicit or procedural memory?
Acquired and knowing how things work. It is Unconscious.
What is explicit or declarative memory?
Is in the limbic system & hippocampus, involves knowing exactly what. Having facts and events.
What is working memory/ short-term memory?
Information is for use, usually dismissed or stored depending on necessity or context.
What are some stresses during young adulthood?
Deciding life goals. Choices for after HS graduation: Leaving home, relationships, education, & seeking employment.
Health maintence in adulthood involves?
Balancing activites, regular physicals with screening, exercise & nutrition.
What career development happens in young adulthood?
Building career
What career development happens in Middle adulthood?
What career development happens in Late Middle Adulthood?
What is the Sandwich Generation?
Caring for parents and children at the same time
Acute coniditions in adulthood are
Time limited, can be life threatening and affect functions
Chronic conditions in adulthood are
Stable conditions, are highly unstable, progressive, and severity.
Family is defined
Biologically, Legally, Emotionally
What is the family systems theory?
The unit of individuals that are impacted by one member and the rules for behavior.
What medical costs are stressors on the family?
Insurance, therapies, medications, nursing care, medical equipment, & recommendations from therapist.
What are changes in employment?
Balances hectic schedules, potential changes, and may need to reduce hours or quit employment
Stress on parents with child with a disability
Emotional response, decisions, exhaustions, things to help
Stress on grandparents with child with a disability
Caregiving role, grief, may also experience challenges
Stress on siblings with child with a disability
Responsibilites, positive side, guilt
Chronic sorrow is?
Describe the long-term periodic sadness the chronically ill and their caregivers experience in reaction to continual losses.
What helps family coping?
Having an early diagnosis
What is the value of family centered treatment?
As a special needs kid impacts the family, loss of control and lack of information causes stress
What does family centered treatment do?
Promotes health & well-being of families, family, and focuses on partnership, outcomes, and stressors
What are the four concepts of family centered care?
Respect and dignity, participation, collaboration, and information sharing.
What is Beneficence?
Doing good
What is nonmaleficence?
Do no harm
Fairness for all cases based on need
Uncertainy in Illness Theory (UIT)
Causes stress; having challenges and causing one to be overwhelmed
What are normative triggers?
Stories in media, illness of a caregiver, and loss of a support service
What are disease-related theory?
Increased child dependency, onset of illness, and changes in treatment regimen
What is family life cycle theory?
Transitionin within the developmental stages over time
What are Ginsberg's Periods of Career Development?
Fantasy, Tentative, & Realistic
What is Fantasy in Ginsberg's Career Development? Before age 11.
Purely play orientation, gradually becomes work- oriented and reflects initial preferences for certain kinds of activities
What is Tentative in Ginsberg's Career Development? 11- 17 years old
Transitional process marked by gradual recognition of work requirements, recognition of interests, abilities, work rewards, values, and time perspectives.
What is Realistic in Ginsberg's Career Development? 17- young adult.
Integration of capacities and interests; further development of values; specification of occupational choice; crystallization of occupational patterns.
What are Super's stages of career development?
Growth, Exploratory, Establishment, Maintance, Decline
What is Growth in Super's career development? Before 15 years old.
Development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts.
What is Exploratory in Super's career development? 15-24 years old
A tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized.
What is Establishment in Super's career development? 25-44 years old
Trial and stabilization through work experiences.
What is Maintence in Super's career development? 45-64 years old
A continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation.
What is Decline in Super's career development? 65+
Pre-retirement considerations, work output, and eventual retirement.
What is super's vocational developmental tasks?
Crystalization, Specification, Implementation, Stabilization, Consolidation
What is Crystallization in super's vocational developmental tasks? (14-18 years old)
Formulating a general vocational goal through awareness of resources, contingencies, values, and planning for the preferred occupation.
What is specification in super's vocational developmental tasks? (18-21 years old)
Moving from tentative vocational preferences toward a specific vocational preference.
What is Implementation in super's vocational developmental tasks? (21-24 years old)
Completing training for vocational preference and entering employment.
What is Stabilization in super's vocational developmental tasks? (24-35 years old)
Confirming preferred career by actual work experience and use of talents to demonstrate career choice as an appropriate one.
What is Consolidation in super's vocational developmental tasks? (35+ years old)
Establishment in a career by advancement, status, and seniority.
What is Gonadotropin in boys?
Hypothalamus produces causes pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone & follicle-stimulating hormone. Make testosterone in testicles.
What is Gonadotropin in girls?
Hypothalamus produces causes pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone & follicle-stimulating hormone. Make estrogen and progesterone in ovaries.
Anorexia Nervosa
Starve themselves because of the pathological fear of being fat
Binge and Purging. Intaking laxatives, diuretics, exercise, vomit, and do calorie restriction. Treated by Family Treatment and Cognitive Therapy
What are positive emotion based strategies for family coping?
Religion, spirituality, distracting themselves, wishful thinking, daydreaming, meditation mindfulness, &journaling
What are negative emotion based strategies for family coping?
alcohol, comfort foods, & drugs
How do families find support?
Social support, support groups, medical professionals, family therapy, & spiritual support
What is Pity?
Feeling of sadness of someone misfortune; associated with superiority.
Personal fable is
They think nobody can understand what they are feeling. Only bad things happen to them.
What is Developmental Crisis?
Part of normal development, something predictable
What is Situational Crisis?
When something unexpected happens, these crises can be hard on the family.