Micro Unit 4

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T4 bacteriophage
attachment, entry, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release
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multiplies immediately after entering the host, lyses host cell for release; ex: T4
integrate with host genome and remain in the host cell without killing it, may switch to lytic at any time; ex: lambda
replicate through a DNA intermediate using reverse transcriptase, released by budding
DNA is nicked, single stranded binding protein and RecA complex formed, recipient DNA invaded, crossover leads to exchange which is then ligated to form two recombinant DNA molecules
host DNA mistakenly packaged into phage head
temperate phages with established lysogeny are incorrectly excised, host DNA exchanged for phage DNA and makes way into new phages
cut DNA at specific sequences
inhospitable environment, both transient and resident, influenced by environment and host factors, cause acne and body odor
small- increasing pH has increasing microbes, E faecalis, lactobacilli
large- most microbes in body, obligate anaerobes, bacteroides, clostridium, produce vitamins and gas
first line of defense, no memory, does not rely on previous exposure