Psych 101 Exam 2 Review

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions



237 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (237)
The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is?
The term absolute threshold refers to the _ intensity of a stimulus that must be present for stimulus to be detected.
The vestibular system is primarily responsible for:
processing location and motion; problems would make it difficult to balance.
The _ threshold refers to the smallest amount of stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another.
Rods are related to vision in _ situations.
dimly lit
Which of the following is the best synonym for sensation?
Much of the visual-recognition areas of the brain are located along the ventral pathway also known as?
the "What" pathway
The blind spot is the place on the retina where _?
the optic nerve leaves the eye toward the brain
The smallest intensity at which you are able to detect a stimulus refers to the?
absolute threshold
The _ is important in that it functions to collect and amplify sound.
outer ear
The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance - a skill known as depth perception - is largely a result of?
binocular disparity
Sensation begins when
energy stimulates a receptor cell in a sense organ
"We all see things - but we _ differently".
the conversion of physical energy into neural signals
the brain's interpretation of sensory information, giving it meaning; knowing what you saw
Sensory thresholds
the limits of our ability to sense stimuli in the environment
Absolute threshold
the smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
We have one _ for each sense.
absolute threshold
Signal detection
method for studying the ability to correctly identify sensory stimuli.
Difference threshold (just noticeable difference)
out ability to detect the smallest change in stimulation
The ability to see a candle flame from 30 miles away and can distinguish represents what Law?
Weber's Law
Weber's Law
the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is a proportion of the original stimulus
What are the two approaches to perceiving the world?
Bottom-up processing and Top-down processing
Bottom-up processing
recognizing and processing information from individual components to build a perception of the whole stimuli
Ex. Person is trying to learn a new language and has to think of the meaning of the word to process and make sentences. This represents what type of processing?
Bottom-up processing
Top-down processing
perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experiences, expectations, and motivations.
Ex. A native English speaking individual doesn't need to thing about the meaning of words. This represents what type of processing?
Top-down processing
Sensory adaptation
decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus after constant stimulation
Over time becoming accustomed to fan sound in room is an example of?
Sensory adaptation
After being told what inaudible sound says, you are able to now identify it because of _?
our expectations of reality
Ex. When being told to count how many basketball passes are made throughout the video, you completely ignore the moonwalking bear that passes by. This is because of what?
Inattentional blindness
Binocular disparity
allows for slightly different views from each eye
Ex. Viewing our finger with one eye changes our perspective. This is an example of _?
binocular disparity
Inattentional blindness states that things that we don't see, don't _.
Binocular vision
provides 3D and depth cues based on different views from two eyes
Types of photoreceptors?
rods and cones
We have two eyes so that we can use _.
depth perception
Function of photoreceptors?
transduce light into electrical signals
Rods are sensitive to _ but not to _?
Cones are _-sensitive and respond to _?
Depth perception allows us to?
perceive distance and view the world in 3D
Location of photoreceptors?
Order of visual pathway through brain? (4)
optic nerve to optic chasm to thalamus to primary visual cortex
Cones function in what type of lighting?
light areas
Carries electrical signals to brain
Optic nerve
Signals are transported to the _ and _ lobes for further processing in the _ association cortex.
Rods function in what type of lighting?
low light or dark areas
Extrastriate body area
understands and recognizes different body parts
inability to perceive stimuli
inability to recognize faces
Occurs when you go from a dark movie theatre to the afternoon sun?
Light adaptation
Known as the "Where" pathway?
Dorsal pathway
Prosopagnosia occurs because of failure of the _?
Fusiform face area
Perception takes place where?
visual association cortex
_ are activated when dark adaption occurs
Occurs when you go from the afternoon sun into a dark movie theatre?
Dark adaptation
Fusiform face area
interprets and recognizes faces
_ are activated when light adaption occurs
Trichromatic theory of color vision states that we have?
three different color-sensitive cells
What are the S-cones of the Trichromatic theory?
blue-violet colors
What are the M-cones of the Trichromatic theory?
green colors
What are the two major theories of color vision?
Trichromatic theory and Opponent-process theory
What are the L-cones of the Trichromatic theory?
red-yellow colors
Trichromatic theory: We can see so many colors because of the _ of stimuli.
Opponent-process theory of color vision
two pairs of basic colors work in opposition to each other
Opponent-process theory colors
Colors of the Opponent-process theory can't _.
can't exist together
Which theory of color vision best explain after images?
Opponent-process theory
Why are some people colorblind?
damaged cones
The perceptual attributes of sound (3)
Loudness (amplitude) refers to the _ sensation.
Pitch refers to?
frequency of sound waves
Timbre refers to?
movement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration
Outer ear
detects direction of sound
Outermost portion of the ear
Auditory canal
Tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear
transparent layer in front of the eye
Opening in the middle of the iris
Cell layer in the back of the eye containing photoreceptors
Photo activation
when light is converted to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) is where what occurs?
sound vibration
Ossicles (middle ear)
three bones in the ear where vibration is transported to the cochlea
Inner ear (cochlea) is the location of
receptor cells
Auditory hair cells
receptors in the cochlea that transduce sound into electrical potentials
Basilar membrane
converts sound waves into neural activity
What causes sound waves to be converted into neural activity?
movement of fluid in cochlea deforms the hair cells of basilar membrane
Cochlear nerve
transfers auditory information from cochlea to the brain
Primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe)
processes complex auditory signals
Semicircular canals
fluid-filled tubes in your inner ear that help with balance
What is vertigo?
issues with balance
mechanical sensory receptors in the skin that respond to stimulation
Primary somatosensory cortex
area of cortex involved in processing somatosensory stimuli
Somatotopic map
helps determine different touches in different areas of the body
What are phantom limbs?
vivid sensations coming from the missing limb
Why are smell and taste chemical senses?
because we have to interpret chemical stimuli to smell or taste something
Olfactory epithelium
where receptors are located
chemicals transduce by olfactory receptors
loss of ability to smell
Taste receptor cells
receptors that transduce taste information
chemical stimulants
What are the five tastants?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami
Do different tastes form a map-like organization on the tongue?
Multimodal perception
integration of sensories to interpret stimuli
Super-additive effect of multi sensory integration states:
typically using different sensory cues is better than using just one
Principle of inverse effectiveness states:
if only type of sensory is needed then it is sufficient
stimulation of one sensory leads to experiences of another
Ex. Listening to music, but seeing shapes is an example of?
the awareness of internal and external stimuli
Types of conscious (or non-conscious) experiences of visual awareness? (2)
Motion-induced blindness and Cortical blindness
Ex. Staring at the stationary yellow dot in the middle of the moving cube causes the cube to disappear. This is an example of what/
Motion-induced blindness
responses to visual stimulus without conscious awareness
Coincident sensations
feeling two or more sensations simultaneously
The rubber hand illusion is an example of?
Coincident sensations
body awareness regulated by brain mechanisms at the temporal junction
What is lowest level of awareness?
One example of high level awareness?
making a decision
below threshold of awareness but brain still encodes information
Cost of low awareness
influenced by subtle factors
Benefit of low awareness
saves mental effort
Cost of high awareness
uses mental effort
Benefit of high awareness
can overcome some biases
mental process of disconnecting from one's thoughts, feelings, memories, or sense of identity
Hypnotherapy uses
relaxation and suggestion
Does hypnosis improve memory? Why?
No, because we can't retrieve lost memories
altered state of consciousness characterized by periods of activity and inactivity
hormone that influences sleep
Circadian rhythm
sleep cycle that tells us when to wake up vs go to sleep
Jet lag
symptoms resulting from the mismatch between our internal circadian cycles and our environment
Stage 1 of sleep
NREM periods
first three stages of sleep
Stage 1 (NREM)
brief transitional stage of light sleep
Stage 2 (NREM)
breathing, respiration, muscle tone, body temperature, and heart rate decline
Stage 3 (NREM)
low-frequency waves are prominent and it is difficult to awaken
REM periods
high-frequency beta waves and vivid dreams occur
More likely to remember dreams if awaken in this stage
REM periods
REM rebound/recovery
lack of sleep causes rebound at next sleep episode
When we sleep is our brain sleeping?
Stage where brain is most active
Class Video: Effects of alcohol
fell asleep faster but was in and out of sleep
Class Video: Effects of Caffeine
experienced more light sleep and couldn't fall asleep
Purpose of dreams
may represent life events that are important to the dreamer
Drugs typically affect _ by either increasing or decreasing activity at the _.
substances that alter a person's perceptions often distorting reality
Hallucinogens affect which neurotransmitter(s)?