# Unit 2: Population 22-23

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34 Terms
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Climate
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
Landforms
the natural features of the land's surface
Water Bodies
inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of arable land
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Carrying Capacity
the largest population that an environment can support at any given time
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
Demographic
relating to the structure of populations
Fertility
the incidence of childbearing in a country's population
Mortality
death
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)
the difference between number of births and deaths
Population Doubling Time
The number of years it takes a population to double; calculated by dividing the number 72 by the rate of natural increase
Demographic Transition Model
a model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy
DTM Stage One
hunting and gathering society, in which a society has a low total population with fluctuations in both the birth and death rates. When the birth rates are high the death rates are low & vice versa. Example: No countries in this stage.
DTM Stage Two
agricultural society, birth rates remain high but death rates decline because of more stable food sources and the diffusion of modern medicine (birth rates & death rates remain higher than the world average) & technology. Example: Nigeria
DTM Stage Three
industrial society, birth rates start to decline while death rates continue to decline, factories and economies become important (birth/death rates are around the world averages) Example: Brazil
DTM Stage Four
tertiary (service-based) societies, birth rates and death rates are almost equal, no longer an industrial society, rather it has shifted towards post-industrial. Example: USA
DTM Stage Five
low death rates, very low birth rates, decrease in natural increase rate. Example: Japan
Epidemiological Transition Model
The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.
ETM Stage 1
Pestilence, famine, and human conflict cause high CDR.
ETM Stage 2
Receding pandemics with improved sanitation and nutrition, rapidly declining CDR
ETM Stage 3
Degenerative and human created diseases. Decrease in human deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders.
ETM Stage 4
medicine delays degenerative diseases; life expectancy reaches a peak
ETM Stage 5
a proposed stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases and some become resistant to antibiotics; CDR increases
Malthusian Theory
The theory that population grows faster than food supply
Esther Boserup
Geographer who believed that our farming technology will always improve in order to be able to feed the growing population of the planet.
Neomalthusians
a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth.
Pronatalist
Policies that encourage people to have children.
Antinatalist
Policies that discourage people from having children.