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95 Terms
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decrease in cell size
increase in cell size
increase in number of cells
cell type is replaced by another cell type
deranged cell growth of tissue that results in cells that vary by size, shape, and organization
changes that occur in cell with swelling
decreased activity of Na/K ATPase pump-->sodium ions increase in cell-->osmotic pressure increases--> water diffuses in cell causing swelling--> cell bursts
reperfusion injury
reperfusion (large influx of O2)-->ischemic conditions-anaerobic metabolism-->oxidative enzymes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS)--> ROS damage cell membranes-liquid peroxidation-->cell death
cell necrosis
occurs in irreversibly damaged cells, cell death
benign tumors
grow slow well differentiated noninvasive do not divide do not metastasize surrounded by fibrous capsule
malignant tumors
grow fast poorly differentiated invasive divide metastasis
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
well differentiated vs poorly differentiated cells
well: looks like normal cells poor: do not look like normal cells
how does cancer spread
direct invasion and extension, seeding of cancer cells into body cavities, metastatic spread through blood or lymph pathways
process by which carcinogenic agents cause normal cells to become cancer cells
Carcinogenesis steps
initiation, promotion, progression
Exposure of cells to a carcinogenic agent that causes them to be vulnerable to cancer transformation
Allows for prolific growth of cells triggered by multiple growth factors and chemicals. Reversible if promoter substance is removed
Manifests when tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies, and increase karyotypic instability
physical carcinogens
tanning beds UV rays
chemical carcinogens
Direct reacting agents or indirect reacting agents, alcohol, smoke
viral carcinogens
HPV and Hepatitis B
immune surveillance
- Immune system plays a central role in resistance against the development of tumors - Provide a means for the detection, classification, and prognostic evaluation of cancers and as a potential method of treatment - Suggested that development of cancer might be associated with impairment or decline in surveillance capacity of immune system
systemic manifestations of cancer
- anorexia and cachexia - fatigue and sleep disorders - anemia
tumor markers
- Antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of a tumor - Used for screening, establishing prognosis, monitoring treatment, and detecting recurrent disease
systemic manifestations of inflammation
Acute-phase response. Alterations in WBCs Fever
edema formation during inflammation
begins with momentary vasoconstriction followed rapidly by vasodilation mediated in part by lipid mediators and vasoactive products outpouring of protein rich fluid into extravascular spaces loss of proteins causes reduced capillary pressure
engulf large and great quantities of foreign material (more than neutrophils)
attack and ingest bacteria and cellular debris
recognition and adherence, engulfment, intracellular killing
cells of phagocytosis
neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages
phases of wound healing
inflammatory, proliferative, remodeling
inflammatory phase
the initial phase of wound healing in which bleeding is reduced as blood vessels in the affected area constrict
proliferative phase
forms granulation tissue for scar tissue development key cell: fibroblast
remodeling phase
scar tissue formed during healing
factors that influence wound healing
malnutrition, impaired blood flow and oxygen delivery, impaired inflammatory and immune responses, infection, wound separation, foreign bodies, age effects
labile cells
continue to divide and replicate throughout life (skin)
stable cells
normally stop dividing when growth ceases (liver and kidney
permanent or fixed cells
cannot undergo miotic division (nerve cells, cardiac cells)
acquired immunity
Immunity that develops during your lifetime
active immunity
acquired when host mounts an immune response to antigen
natural active immunity
antibodies developed in response to infection
artificial active immunity
antibodies developed in response to a vaccine
passive immunity
transferred from another source
natural passive immunity
acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk
artificial passive immunity
antibodies received from a medicine, from a gamma globulin injection or infusion
adaptive immunity
the ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and mount an attack on them
humoral immunity
mediated by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes
cellular immunity
immune response that relies on T cells to destroy infected body cells
innate immunity
body's first line of defense
innate immunity cells
neutrophils macrophages DCs NK cells phagocytes monocytes
adaptive immunity cells
B and T cells macrophages DCs NK cells
responsible for protection of newborn only one that crosses placenta
protects mucous membranes
forms natural antibodies such as those for ABO blood antigens activates complement
needed for maturation of B cells
allergic reactions
classification of immune disorders
primary secondary hypersensitive autoimmunity
congenital or inherited as sex linked, autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive traits
develop later in life because of other pathophysiologic states such as malnutrition, disseminated cancers, infection of cell of immune system (HIV)
abnormal and excessive response of the activated immune system that causes injury and damage to host tissues
heterogenous group of disorders that occur when the body's immune system fails to differentiate "self" from "nonself" and mounts an immunologic response against host issues
pathophysiologic mechanisms in HIV
takes over CD4 T cells
Type 1 hypersensitivity
- IgE mediated - Onset within 1 hour - Ex: Anaphylaxis - Allergies
Type 2 hypersensitivity
- IgG or IgM cytotoxic mediated - Onset in hours to days - Ex: Hemolytic anemia
Type 3 hypersensitivity
- Immune complex mediated - Onset within 1-3 weeks - Ex: serum sickness SLE
Type 4 hypersensitivity
- T cell mediated - Onset from days to weeks - Ex: Rash SJS
components of host defense
skin and mucous membranes
any organisms capable of supporting the nutritional and physical growth requirements of another
factors affecting host defense
- Weakened by illness, malnutrition, or medical therapy
symptom production in neutropenia
decreased neutrophil count first signs are skin lesions, pharyngitis, diarrhea
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
most common in children structural changes in chromosomes of leukemic cells
Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML)
mainly in older adults affects myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
immune incompetent B cells due to failure of apoptosis
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML)
overgrowth of mature granulocytes in bone marrow specific chromosome abnormality: Philadelphia chromosome
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma manifestations
slow growing: painless lymphadenopathy more aggressive: fever, weight loss, night sweats
Hodgkin's lymphoma manifestations
painless enlarged lymph nodes, chest discomfort, fevers, chills, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, anemia
stoppage of blood flow
mechanisms of hemostasis
vascular constriction, platelet plug formation, coagulation
manifestations of thrombocytopenia
- History of bruising, bleeding from gums, epistaxis, melena, and abnormal menstrual bleeding in those with moderately reduced platelet counts - Splenic enlargement may occur
effect of vascular disorders on hemostasis
- Bleeding resulting from vascular disorders is sometimes referred to as nonthrombocytopenic purpura. - May occur from structurally weak vessel walls or because damage to vessels by inflammation or immune responses - Easy bruising or petechia and purpura of skin
manifestations of anemia
- Impaired oxygen transport, compensatory mechanisms, decrease in HGM and RBC indices, weakness, chest pain, cold hands and feet, headache, lightheaded - Causes: loss of RBCs from bleeding, destruction (hemolysis) of RBCs, defective RBC production, inadequate RBC production from bone marrow failure - Compensatory mechanisms
TNM best
Tis N0 M0
TNM worst
T4 N4 M4
B-12 deficiency anemia
cause: pernicious anemia which causes failure to absorb B12
iron deficiency anemia
anemia caused by inadequate iron intake
programmed cell death
When does HIV become AIDS?
when the CD4 count goes below 200
opportunistic infection
occur as immune system becomes severely compromised
sickle cell anemia screening
made on the basis of clinical findings and hemoglobin solubility results newborn screening
anemia that handles bone marrow
aplastic anemia
small, pinpoint hemorrhages
multiple myeloma
B-cell malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells