making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite. In art it is called chiaroscure, where a white object next to a black make both more visible
An appeal to reason. It occurs when a writer tries to convince you of the logic of his argument, using inductive or deductive argumentation. THis uses a rational tone in their language. Works until fallacys are exposed.
An independent clause followed by debris, usaully dependent clauses. Can be in MCQs.
Word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar. Derived from Richard Sheridan's play The Rivals' character Mrs. Malaprop
a figure of speech in which what is unknown is compared to something that is known in order to gauge it's importance
A minor figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely associated. Often in MCQs.
"it does not follow" -- arguments that don't logically follow
A noun towards which thought, feeling, or action is directed. Not all sentences have objects although they must have subjects and predicates.
A figure of speech in which a sound imitates the thing or another thing that is associated with it.
two words that together create a sense of opposition. They often point to a particular argument.
A major figure of speech in rhetorical analysis that creas a mental discontinuity which then forces the reader to pause and seek clarity. A truth or group of sentences that defy our intuition.
A pattern of language that creates a rhythm of repetition, often combined with other language of repetition.
Phrases, sentences and words inside parenthesis
a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing and -ed
The opposite of active voice, something happens TO someone
A sentence with several dependent clauses that precede the independent clauses. An independent clause appears before the period.
Giving human attributes to non-human things.
A grouping of words that define or clarify. There are no verbs.
Point of View
The perspective from which the writer choices to present his or her story or essay. First, seocnd or third point of view are most common. Second pov exists too.
poisioning the well
A character or person is introduced with the language that suggests that they are not reliable before the readers knows anything about them.
the use of consecutive coordinating conjunctions even when they are not needed
Formal term for the verb that conveys the meaning or carries the action of the sentence
An adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of the sentence.