AP Psych Quiz 1 (Research Methods and Perspectives)

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27 Terms
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survey method (Definition)
series of questions to have humans respond to gather information
survey method (Advantages)
1. easier to get large group of data 2. cheap and efficient 3. data is easy to interpret
survey method (disadvantages)
1. Only surface level research 2. "self report"; cannot guarantee accuracy in answers
naturalistic observation (definition)
not interfering just observation with no manipulation of environment
naturalistic observation (advantages)
1. authenticity 2. easy, cost efficient 3. practical
naturalistic observation (disadvantages)
1. presence of observer can cause study subject to alter behavior 2. possibility of ethical conflict
case study (definition)
in depth study of one or more people in an unusual scenario
case study (advantages)
1. in-depth due to focused study 2. allows studying in a unique way that is difficult or possibly unethical to recreate 3. can lead to further studies to due discoveries
case study (disadvantages)
1. cannot apply broadly 2. expensive, time consuming
experiment (definition)
controlled study to find the answer to a specific question/ prove a cause and effect relationship
experiment (advantages)
1. high level of control 2. only method to show a definitive cause and effect relationship
experiment (disadvantages)
1. may not translate well to real "uncontrolled" world 2. participant size will be small 3. expensive, time consuming 4. to follow labor laws, experimenters cannot continue experiment past labor laws human abilities even if needed for the experiment
nature vs. nurture
longstanding controversy over the contributions that genes and experience add to traits and behavior
how mental and behavioral processes function
"structure of the mind" expressing your own perspective and what you know about yourself (bias)
view that knowledge originates in experience
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method psychologist: Mary Calkins
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes psychologists: John B. Watson, B.F Skinner
humansitic psychology
a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people psychologists: Carl Rodgers, Abraham Maslow
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)- understanding mental process
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
3 main levels of analysis
biological, psychological, social-cultural
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological influences
1. natural selection of adaptive traits 2. genetic predispositions responding to environment 3. brain mechanisms 4. hormonal influences
psychological influences
1. learned fears and other learned expectations 2. emotional responses 3. cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
social-cultural influences
1. presence of others 2. cultural, societal, and family expectations 3. peer and other group influences 4. compelling models (such as in the media)
the role of the unconscious Psychologists: Freud