Communications Exam 1

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Source Oriented
"Intent" Matters
Receiver Oriented
Intent does not matter
Where is Source-oriented communication used?
Public Relations (Ex; Journalism, Advertising)
Where is receiver-oriented communication used?
Interpersonal, communication, consulting
What are the flaws of source-oriented communication?
Too narrow
What are the flaws of receiver-oriented communication?
too broad, doesn't draw the line between communication & behavior
Linear/one-way view of communication
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Interactional Model
Communication takes turns
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Transaction Model
Communication plays role simultaneously
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Function of Theories
Organise Experience, Extend Knowledge, Stimulate and Guide Research, Perform an Anticipatory Function
Talk is a practical art
Study of Signs in ordinary/everyday life
personal interpretation that we make as individuals
Information processing -expansive look on communication networks -Where the message went wrong
Cause & Effect on human interaction
Everyday interactions depend heavily on pre-existing social norms/shared cultural patterns
-Fairness, Injustice, Power -Language is to keep or break down social order
Communication with oneself
Imagined Interactions
A grand macro-scale model with a set of assumptions that are shared by many "like theories"
Drawbacks of Paradigm
-Incomplete, oversimplified -many ways to model a single process
Covering Laws
-Focuses on numbers -Makes Generalisations
Strengths of Covering Laws
-Good at making predictions -Identifies clear themes in human interaction -Frequently used -Allows you to study large group of people
Weaknesses of Covering Laws
-Can appear Linear -Overemphasized in-groups & outgroups
Rules you pick to govern your opinion
Strengths of Rules
Strengths of Rules -Free choice interpretation -Multiple meanings to any one action -Diverse perspectives
Weaknesses of Rules
-No clear cut answers -Doesn't offer any generalised ability
Patterns of behaviours
Strengths of Systems
-Most aware of the communication context -Good at giving descriptions of how things are interacted -Doesn't attempt to make universal generalisations Scope
Boundaries & limits of the theories explanations
Logical Consistency
Do the principles of theories contradict each other?
Theory as simple as it could be
Theory is useful, practical, applied
Can parts of the theory be falsified?
Theory stimulating new ways of things
Test of Time
How long has the theory been around? How long has it been used?
Assumptions of Expectancy Violations Theory
-Human interaction is driven by expectations -When expectations are not met (deviation) becomes aroused or curious -Evaluations of deviations are mediated by the reward value of the communicator
Critique of Expectancy Violations Theory
Scope: does the throw define its parameters Utility: Can you use it/can you apply it anywhere Testability: Have to be able to observe it Heurism: Stimulated ideas
behaviours we can anticipate in a conversation with another person
When you notice something was not anticipated as you thought you become more AWARE!
Threat Threshold
Interactant in the conversation feels uncomfortable in the presence of deviation
Violation Valence
Positive or Negative assessment of deviation
Assumptions of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
-Communicators carry rich assortiments of cognitive elements -What is consonant or dissonant for one person may not be for another -Dissonance produces tension for change -Human attempt to deduce dissonance tend to avoid situations that produce it -More dissonance=Greater pressure to change
Sources of Consonance
-Reassurance of Security -Demonstration of Predictability -The use of Rewards
Sources of Dissonance
-Loss of Group Prestige -Economic Loss Loss of Personal Prestige -Uncertainty of Prediction -Guilt
Ways Dissonance is reduced
-New elements may be added to cognitive systems to add more "weight" to one side or the other -Elements may be refined as important -Consent information may be sought -Info may be distorted
Critique of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
-Utility(-): Maybe the theory can't be applied -Testability(-): Validate & Falsify ideas, theory is hard to falsify
most acceptable position to the receiver on the topic
Latitude of Acceptance
range of all positions that are agreeable to the individuals or audience on that topic
Latitude of Noncommitment
range of all positions toward which individual or audience feels neutral
Latitude of Rejection
range of all positions that are objectionable to an individual or audience
Ego- Involvement
Importance of the issue to the receiver (As ego involvement increases, the latitude of rejection increases)
Distortion Process: Assimilate
when something sounds similar we view it as the same
Distortion Process: Contrast
When something is slightly different we see it as VERY different
Critique of Social Judgement Theory
-Heurism (+) -Testability(+) -Utility(+) -Logical Consistency (-)