APUSH: Period 5 (Part 1) IDs

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Manifest Destiny
American desire to extend the nation's borders to the Pacific Ocean
Americans in Mexican Texas
American settlers populated Texas but identified as Americans and brought slaves to Mexico
Santa Anna
Mexican president who refused that the settlers in Texas keep their former American identity
Battle of the Alamo
After Houston staged an armed revolt and declaring Texas an independent republic, the troops retreated to the Alamo, where Santa Anna sent troops to wipe out the Texas-American rebels
Independent Republic of Texas
The Texas-Americans declared Texas an Independent Republic in March 1836, fought the Battle of the Alamo and the Battle of San Jacinto, and finally becoming their own republic in April 1836
Tyler’s failed Texas annexation
Calhoun and Tyler write the Treaty of 1844 and send it to Congress, but the treaty is filled with language of the "positive good" viewpoint of slavery, and Congress sees it as a goal of growing slavery
Oregon Fever
The Oregon Trail became a busy pioneer path as thousands of American settlers were lured westward to the Willamette Valley and further into California
To encourage settlement in California, the land was deeded to elite Mexican families, creating a Spanish and Mexican class of ranchers known as Californios
Liberty Party
A political party focused on pushing an abolitionist agenda
Personal Liberty Laws
Offers some protection to runaway slaves (right to a jury trial); Congress doesn't nullify (individual states create the laws); The Northern response to the Compromise of 1850
John Tyler
William Henry Harrison's Vice President-turned-President; from the upper crust of Virginia (elite); favors state's rights
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Between the United States and Britain, this treaty finalizes the border between Maine and Canada, granting the United States a lot of the unclaimed territory, increasing the size of Maine and giving Northerners more power in Congress
Election of 1844
Heavily based on the candidates' positions on the annexation of Texas; Henry Clay (whig), Van Buren, Calhoun, Lewis Cass, James K. Polk (democrats), James Birney (liberty)
“54 40 or fight”
James K. Polk's slogan where he wants to annex Oregon up to the 54" 40 line, which is all the way up near Alaska
Oregon Treaty (1846)
Gives the United States Oregon to the 49th parallel
Annexation of Texas
John Tyler is able to annex Texas in 1845 before the end of his presidency based on a mandate on annexation since the people voted for Polk, who was pro-Texas annexation
Mexican-American War
Caused by a territorial dispute between Mexico and Texas with an unknown border (Rio Grande River or Nueces River); Zachary Taylor is sent to scout out the Mexican disputed area, which starts the war; Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott invade Mexico and caputre Mexico City
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
The border of Texas ends at the Rio Grande River and the United States wins the land to the West due to the Mexican Cession
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmont proposes that the land given in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo will be free but Texas will be a slave state; Never goes into effect
Election of 1848
Zachary Taylor (whig); Democrats struggle to determine which side of slavery they are on (Calhoun v. Wilmont views)... nominate Lewis Cass; Van Buren (free soil)
Free Soil Party
A political party that aims to prevent the expansion of slavery to the West not because slavery is morally wrong but because slaves will take the jobs of white Americans
Popular Sovereignty
People of each state vote to determine the state's status of slavery (free state or slave state)
Compromise of 1850
Issue: Gold was discovered in California, so California petitioned for statehood; Solution: Henry Clay created resolutions... California will be a free state, the Mexican Cession will follow popular sovereignty, slavery will be abolished in D.C., Fugitive slave act is intensified
Fugitive Slave Act
Intensified by the Compromise of 1850, this act makes it a crime to help the enslaved escape
John Sutter
Immigrated from Switzerland to California and established Sutter's Mill, wher workers found gold in California
California Gold Rush
When thousands of migrants from the United States and abroad were making their way to California in search of gold; caused the Yuki to lose their homes and lives and Californios to almost lose their standings as the region's most dominant land-owning class
When towns were abandoned after the mining; Initial miners usually mined areas dry
Effect of gold rush on Chinese immigrants
The Gold Rush attracted the Chinese (also China faced food shortages, regional riots, and political instability), but the Chinese were harassed and expelled due to racism
1852 Election
Winfield Scott (whig); Franklin Pierce (democrat); Hale (free soil)... Pierce believes in expansion and agrees with popular sovereignty and the fugitive slave law
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Exposes the truth of slavery in the South
Stephen Douglas
Proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act by helping Henry Clay ratify his proposals by spliting them into smaller pieces
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
As settlers move into Nebraska, they push to be a territory... Stephen Douglas wants the railroad to run through the territory; Solution: Kansas and Nebraska will use popular sovereignty to decide status of the state (debunk Missouri Compromise line); Leads to the collapse of the 2nd party system... whig party splits (Republicans (North) and Democrats (South))
Case of Anthony Burns
Anothony Burns escaped to Boston, was recaptured, and was forced back to the South because of the Fugitive Slave Law... Bostonians tried to free him and were awaken about slavery
New England Emigrant Company
Provided guns and other goods for pioneers willing to go to Kansas and establish the territory as antislavery through popular sovereignty
Rise of the Know-Nothing/American Party
Lead an anti-immigrant political platform
Rise of the Republican Party
Republicans formed in 1854 in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.. opposed to the expansion of slavery
Election of 1856
Buchanan wins while the Union is in turmoil
Caning of Sumner
Charles Sumner advocates for abolitionism in Congress when Brooks beats him with a cane in the Capital
Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown uses violence to end slavery after the pro-slavery people burn down the newpspaer offices, killing those people
Gadsden Purchase 1854
James Gadsden buys the territory from Mexico to enable the transcontinental railroad to have a Southern route from San Diego to El Paso
Collapse of the Second Party System
The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the collapse of the 2nd Party System, where the Whig Party splits into the Republicans (don't support the Kansas-Nebraska Act) and the Democrats (support the Kansas-Nebraska Act)
Ostend Manifesto
A secret decision that letting Spain keep Cuba is dangerous and Southerners want Cuba to expand slavery... Polk offered to buy it in 1848 and Pierce tries again in 1854
Bleeding Kansas
Popular Sovereignty backfires when there's no voter identification, so people with interest on both sides of the debate come to vote in Kansas... Missouri people vote for a slave state, but Kansas people want to be a free state; Two governments are created: Topeka (anti-slavery) and Lecompton (pro-slavery)
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott was an enslaved man who was taken to Wisconsin (a free state) where his owner died... goes to court to sue for his freedom; Decided that no black person has the right to stand in federal court and the 5th ammendment allows property to be owned anywhere
Justice Taney
Roger Taney was the chief justice on the case between Dred Scott and Sanford who decided that Dred Scott is not allowed to stand in the federal court because he doesn't have the standings as an American citizen as he is black and that he is just chattel
Lecompton Constitution
The slavery government of Kansas proposes a Constitution that gets approved by Buchanan but not by Congress because Stephen Douglas declares it is not what Kansas wants
John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
John Brown wants to attack the federal arsenal and arm the enslaved; The United States army puts down the uprising and John Brown gets sentenced to death
Lincoln’s View on Slavery in mid-1850’s
Lincoln made his 1854 Peoria Speech where he made his view against the spread of slavery clear... No expansion of slavery past the Missouri Compromise; Lincoln is for the Wilmont Proviso and agains the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln’s debates in 1858
Lincoln ran against Douglas for the Illinois Senate Seat; Lincoln argued that free states are at risk from pro-slavery forces and Douglas accused Lincoln of supporting total racial equality; Debated one another in political seminars
James Buchanan
The 15th president of the United States, winning the 1856 election