Honors Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

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61 Terms
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structure; to cut apart; parts of the body and their arrangement
function; study of the nature of the body
when you loose the structure of an object
you loose the function of it
regional anatomy
concerned with a body area
foot, arm, etc.
examples of regional anatomy
system anatomy
concerned with one system
skeletal, nervous
examples of system anatomy
surface anatomy
structures that are visible or palpable on the skin
the study of cells
study of tissues
through life stages, development needs
in utero development
hierarchical organization
chemical-cellular-tissue-organ-organ system
extra cellular matrix
8 necessary life functions
maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
does not equal
maintaining boundaries
cell membranes and the skin provide a buffer to the outside world
permitted by muscles
inside movement
cardiac ( heart contractions show beating of heart)
outside movement
skeletal muscle contractility
maintains homeostasis
internal responsiveness
adjust blood pressure, respiration levels, heart rate, etc.
external responsiveness
sweat to regulate body temperature
breakdown and absorption of nutrients
all chemical reactions
tearing down
building up
output waste from metabolism and digestion
urination (excretion of proteins), part of urinary system, produced by kidneys
exhalation, part of respiratory system
defecation (excretion of unabsorbed foods), digestive system
small-scale reproduction
cell division for growth and repair
large-scale reproduction
production of offspring to continue species
small-scale growth
increase size of body part of organism
large-scale growth
increase number of cells
Integumentary system parts
hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands
Integumentary system jobs
1) protects deep tissues from injury/infection 2)synthesizes Vitamin D 3) receives general pain
Skeletal System parts
joints, bones
skeletal system jobs
1) protect and support body organs 2) assist muscular system with movement 3) forms blood cells in marrow 4) stores minerals like calcium in bones
muscular system parts
skeletal muscles
muscular system jobs
1) movement 2) posture 3) body language
nervous system parts
brain, nerves, spinal cord, support tissues
nervous system jobs
1) responds to changes internal or external by activating muscles or glands
endocrine system parts
thyroid gland, pineal glad, pituitary gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries/testes
endocrine system jobs
excretes hormones to regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by the body cells
cardiovascular/circulatory system parts
heart, blood vessels
types of blood vessels
arteries (RBC), veins (WBC), capillaries (platelets)
cardiovascular/circulatory system jobs
1) transport blood 2) pump blood to move oxygen, waste, nutrients, etc.
lymphatic system parts
spleen, thymus, red bone marrow, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, lymphatic vessels, white blood cells (T and B cells)
lymphatic system jobs
1) returns filtered blood 2) disposes of waste and old red blood cells
respiratory system parts
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchus, trachea, lung
respiratory system jobs
1) breathing 2) communication 3) supply oxygen, remove carbon dioxide
digestive system parts
oral cavity, esophagus, liver, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, rectum, anus
digestive system jobs
1) mechanically and chemically breaks down food for absorption 2) elimination of indigestible food as feces
urinary system parts
kidney, ureter. urinary bladder, urethra
urinary system jobs
1) eliminates nitrogenous waste 2) regulates water, electrolytes, and pH of blood 3) excretes extra acid from blood
male reproductive system parts
prostate, penis, testes, scrotum, ductus defrens
male reproductive system jobs
1) creation of offspring 2) make and deliver sperm
female reproductive system parts
mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube
female reproductive system jobs
1) create offspring 2) produce eggs 3) develop organism "in utero" 4) provide nutrition for offspring postpartum