Honors Biology 9: Unit 1 - Cell Structure and Functions

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What does the surface area to volume ratio have to do with cells?
if a cell's surface area to volume ratio is too close, then the cell has to split or else it will combust
What does the endosymbiotic theory state?
some of the organelles in today's eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes
What is some evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory?
mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA, 70 s ribosomes, and a double membrane
What is cancer?
an abnormal growth of the cell; there are no "checkpoints"
What are the two main types of cancer?
benign and malignant
Describe benign cancer.
non-invasive, usually not deadly, cured by the removal of the tumor
Describe malignant cancer.
invasive; grows between cells and destroys the tissue; normally treated with radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and new cells are made from pre-existing cells
What are the three main components of the cell membrane?
phospholipids, proteins, and cholesterol
What is diffusion?
the movement of molecules from high to low concentration areas until equalibrium is reached
How do water, carbon dioxide, and sodium move in and out of the cell?
What is the specfic type of diffusion that water uses as a transport method?
What is the extracellular matrix?
the outer protective skeleton of the cell plasma membrane in animal cells (the extra wall around the wall)
What is the cytoskeleton?
a network of fibers and fillaments extending throughout the cytoplasm
What does the cytoskeleton do?
it provides support, structure, mobility, and organization throughtout the cell
What are the three parts of the signal transduction pathway?
reception, transduction, and response
Explain the phone analogy of the signal transduction pathway
reception- the phone is ringing, you know nothing about the caller transduction- answering the phone response- hanging up the phone and doing what you were told to do
What is a G protein receptor?
proteins that are used to convert signals from outside the cell into responses inside the cell
What are the main types of cellular transport?
Diffusion, facillitated diffusion, and osmosis
What is facillitated diffusion?
the movement of molecules that requires help from a transport protein; doesn't require energy
What are the stages of the cell cycle?
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
What are the phases of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What happens during interphase?
the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for cell division
What happens during mitosis?
the nucleus of the cell divides
What happens during cytokinesis?
the cytoplasm divides and daughter cells form
Where do proteins go to be packaged?
golgi apparatus
Where do proteins go to be shipped out of the cell?
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)