Psychology Exam 3 (CH 2 & 3)

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A neurotransmitter responsible for memory and muscle contractions.
A neurotransmitter responsible for pleasure, controlling movements, and thinking.
A neurotransmitter responsible for general arousal.
A neurotransmitter responsible for emotional arousal, sleep, and regulating appetite.
A neurotransmitter responsible for calming anxiety. It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A neurotransmitter responsible for altering pain perceptions.
Agonist (type of psychoactive drug)
- Increases the effects of neurotransmitters - Attach to receptor site and mimic - Blocks reuptake of neurotransmitters
Antagonist (type of psychoactive drug)
- Decreases the effects of neurotransmitters - Attach to receptor site and stops (ex. botox) - Degrades enzymes
What does the central nervous system consist of?
- Brain - Spinal cord
What does peripheral nervous system consist of?
- Somatic Nervous System - Autonomic Nervous System
What is the Somatic Nervous System responsible for?
Responsible for voluntary muscle movement.
What is the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for?
Responsible for involuntary muscle movements (ex. heart) and gland secretions.
What does the Autonomic Nervous System consist of?
- Sympathetic Nervous System - Parasympathetic Nervous System
What is the Sympathetic Nervous System responsible for?
Quickly generating energy in emergency situations (called the gas pedal)
What is the Parasympathetic Nervous System responsible for?
Slowing your body down (called the brake pedal)
How can lesions be used to study the brain?
Compare what functions are lost to where the injury happened.
How can stimulation be used to study the brain?
Increasing activity (sometimes by an electrical current to brain while they are awake)
Electroencephalogram (studies brain waves)
What kinds of Imaging are used to study the brain?
- MRI - CT Scan - PET Scan
Medulla (Hindbrain)
Responsible for survival functions. (breathing and heart rate)
Pons (Hindbrain)
- Coordinates info from one side of the brain to another - Regulates sleep
Cerebellum (Hindbrain)
Regulates balance and coordination
Reticular Formation (Hindbrain)
- Connects hindbrain to forebrain - Acts as an alert system - Controls consciousness
Thalamus (Forebrain)
- Sends info from senses to appropriate place
Hypothalamus (Forebrain)
Regulates hunger, thirst, and body temperature
Limbic System (Forebrain)
- Amygdala: Stores and regulates emotions - Hippocampus: Gateway to memory
Cerebrum (Forebrain)
Sophisticated functions (ex. language)
Cortex (Forebrain)
Outer layer
Corpus Callosum (Forebrain)
Separates left and right brain, allowing for communication
Frontal Lobe
- Voluntary movement/ goal-directed behavior - Executive Function (less impuslive) - Matures fully at 25
Occiptial Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Taste and touch
Temporal Lobe
Hearing, Balance, equilibrium
Mixed up senses, signals get sent to wrong part of the brain
Right brain = ?
Left brain = ?
What percent of people are right-handed?
What percent of people are left-handed?
What percent of people can use both hands?
Right handed people tend to live shorter lives or longer lives than those who are left handed?
Right handed people tend to live longer lives than those that are left handed.
Why might it be helpful to split corpus collosum?
Procedure is done for those who have seizures.
In the endocrine system, what acts a messenger?
Hormones act as messengers in the endocrine system.
How do hormones travel?
Through the bloodstream
Where do hormones come from?
They are secreted by glands
Pituitary Gland
Responsible for secreting growth hormones
Pineal Gland
Responsible for secreting melatonin
Thyroid Gland
Responsible for secreting thyroxine. (regulates metabolism)
Adrenal Gland
Responsible for secreting - epinephrine - norepinephrine - cortisol
Which hormones are considered stress hormones?
- Epinephrine - Norepinephrine - Cortisol
Responsible for secreting - Androgens (ex. testosterone) - Estrogens (ex. estrogen)
Basic building block of heredity
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
Genes are...
Segments of DNA
Genetic code/ instructions (ex. male genotype is XY)
Physical appearance that the genotype codes for
Monozygotic Twins
- Identical twins. - They share 100% of the same genetic info. - Share same egg, 2 sperm fertilize it.
Dizygotic Twins
- Fraternal twins. - They share 50% of the same genetic info. - 2 different eggs get fertilized at the same time.
Twin Studies
Compare genetic factors to environmental factors to see what traits are genetic and which are environmental. (nature vs nurture)