Campbell Biology Chapter 5

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44 Terms
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a chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in dis-assembly of polymers to monomers.
an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group. The monomers of polypeptides. There are 20 different forms. Distinguished by side chains.
the linkage between amino acids forming a covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction.
loss of a proteins normal 3D structure; can possibly be caused by pH and temperature changes which affect the ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds & hydrophilic interactions
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also called simple sugars, they have formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O (1:2:1).
a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction.
a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
a faty acid that has one or more double bonds betwen carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
an unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds.
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts s a polar, hydrophilic head. They form bilayers that function as biological membrane.
function as membranes
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached. Function as part of membranes or hormones.
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups.
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain. The nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
transmission of information, consists of monomers with a ribose sugar and nitrogenous bases cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) & uracil (U). Single stranded.
a nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.